Difference between revisions of "Crew 3 - Crew Reports"

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In order to quell the urges of nature, it is advisable NOT to drink any coffee the morning before an especially long EVA. Coffee is a natural diuretic and does not help you retain the water that you have drunk and are drinking while on EVA.
 
In order to quell the urges of nature, it is advisable NOT to drink any coffee the morning before an especially long EVA. Coffee is a natural diuretic and does not help you retain the water that you have drunk and are drinking while on EVA.
 +
 +
=March 17, 2002=
 +
==MDRS Log Book==
 +
''MDRS Log, Commander Grieger''
 +
 +
Last night was Stacey's last night in the hab, as she shares her two week shift with Sybil, who will arrive today. When all of yesterday's reports were done and sent to Mission Support, we watched the movie "Brother where art thou" (which I found to be very funny although I might not have understood more than one third of the text).
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.0730
 +
 +
My alarm clock rings. The night was quite stormy, and I was awake several times from some noices the storm caused in the hab, thus I am a little bit tired this morning. But now the storm is over, and the sun shines from a blue Martian sky.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.0815
 +
 +
Coffee is ready, but besides Nell nobody else of the crew has shown up by now. They may also have not slept so well.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.0830
 +
 +
Only Erik has also shown up so far. We turn on some music.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.0845
 +
 +
Now all are up, having breakfast. Plan for today is that Nell and Tiff will go on an EVA and the rest of will stay in the hab. Jon is going to repair he roof and also fix the roof hatch, with has been blown off again in the night. Erik and me are going to assist him and take some pictures. Also plan to dismount the wheel with the flat tire from the ATV to get it fixed. Stacey wants to finish some work and has to pack her stuff.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.0930
 +
 +
The old roof hatch is prelimenary fixed again. It will we replaced by the new one Jon constructed.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.0945
 +
 +
The wheel with the flat tire is dismounted from the ATV. It's nice to have Jonathan around functioning as "jack" to lift the ATV ...
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1000
 +
 +
Starting preparation of EVA 34 by Nell and Tiff.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1052
 +
 +
EVA team enters airlock.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1057
 +
 +
EVA team departures. Some clouds have shown up now.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1023
 +
 +
EVA comm check, position reported.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1147
 +
 +
EVA comm check, position reported.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1220
 +
 +
Starting work on roof. Jon is working outside. We have finally decided to do this off sim, see engineering report for details.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1335
 +
 +
EVA comm check, position reported.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1355
 +
 +
Roof repair completed, new hatch fixed. It has become pretty chilly outside. We are going to have lunch now.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1430
 +
 +
We note an EVA comm attempt, but have no clear connection. As this happended frequently befor, we do not think about any problems at this time.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1440
 +
 +
EVA team arrives back at the hab, both on only one ATV. By radio they request us to have some warm blankets and hot drinks ready before they enter the airlock. It turns out that they had to leave one EVA behind that did not start any more. They feel pretty cold but decide to stick to sim and go through the five minute regression procedure.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1445
 +
 +
Regression completed. The returning team is offerd hot chocolate just as the helmets are deployed.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1545
 +
 +
All are back to nominal operation temperature, thanks to a hot soup that Stacey prepared.
 +
 +
We decide to approach the recovery of the stalled ATV in a "semi sim mode" with two teams, one team - Nell, Jon and Erik - going out in full sim mode and see how far they can get with the recovery, the rest of us accompanying them off sim as backup team to provide additional help if needed and to document this event. Starting preparation of EVA 35.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1615
 +
 +
Three local people on ATVs show up. Stacey and I go outside to welcome them. They are very interested in our project, and ask if they can come back next week with a visiting child to see the hab. We ensure them that they are welcome.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1630
 +
 +
EVA 35, the ATV Recovery Task Force, departs from the hab. The EVA is described in detail in the corresponding report.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1737
 +
 +
The ATV Recovery Task Force completed the mission successfully in full sim mode and enters the airlock.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1742
 +
 +
Regression completed. After taking off and cleaning the space suits, we start transmitting the pictures of today and working on the reports.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.1930
 +
 +
Dinner. Excellent spaghetti prepared by Nell.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.2030
 +
 +
Resume working on reports.
 +
 +
Crew rotation 3 now lives and works in the hab for one week. Many of the tasks we have to accomplish in the hab and in our explorations have become a kind of routine. However, unexpected events are never more than a footstep ahead.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0317.2100
 +
 +
Sybil arrives. Stacey has met her in Hanksville and led the way to the hab. We try to finish reports ASAP to spend some time together and celebrate Nell's birthday before Stacey leaves.
 +
 +
==Biology Geology Report==
 +
''Nell Beedle and Tiffany Vora''
 +
 +
Three stops on EVA34 were for the specific purpose of collecting samples for the geologists and biologists. We focused on areas with salt deposits to search for halophilic bacteria.
 +
 +
'''GEO1/BIO1.'''
 +
 +
UTM: 4253151N, 514581E. Facing SE, Elevation 1468m. Waypoint 89.
 +
 +
Fissile greenish-black (weathers gray) mudstone/siltstone with thin (less than 5 mm) layers of satin spar gypsum and sandy mudstone. Gypsum crystals were removed with forceps for biological analysis.
 +
 +
'''BIO2.'''
 +
 +
UTM: 4252934N, 514424E. Facing SES, Elevation 1458m. Waypoint 90.
 +
 +
A buff/reddish-brown thin-bedded medium-grained sandstone boulder, approximately 5 meters in diameter at the base of a west-trending side canyon. We hypothesize the water had run over the face of the boulder, depositing salts. Chips of the boulder, including the “salt” deposits, were sampled for biological analysis.
 +
 +
'''GEO2/BIO3:'''
 +
 +
UTM: 4252941N, 514432E. Facing ESE, Elevation 1459m. Waypoint 91.
 +
 +
Sample site 3 was a rock overhang with thin (less than 5mm) laminated mudstone, blackish/gray, weathers brown with extensive weathering and crystalline (rosette) salts deposited along fractures. Flakes of crystalline salts (gypsum?) were gently removed with forceps from weathered cracks for biological analysis.
 +
 +
==EVA Report==
 +
''Nell Beedle''
 +
 +
'''EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW'''
 +
 +
Today's EVA 34 main objective was to search for gypsum deposits and halophilic organisms within the lower Mancos Shales at the base of Skyline Rim.
 +
 +
'''DATE: 03-18-02'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Recover stalled ATV
 +
!
 +
!
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|Grieger
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|MDRS3
 +
|MDRS4
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Beedle/2
 +
|Sharavelle/3
 +
|Vora/6
 +
|Dory/5
 +
|Carlstrom/5
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|1106
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|1247
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}'''EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)'''
 +
 +
We successfully navigated to the general area of Waypoints 62 and 64 along the base of Skyline Rim. We then proceeded up a nearby, west-trending side-canyon in search of intact Mancos Shale Formation rocks cropping out. We found several accessible deposits with satin spar and crystalline gypsum, and collected samples for biological analysis.
 +
 +
The weather deteriorated throughout the EVA, and at 1335, we decided to return to MDRS. At this point, Vora noted that she was feeling chilled and needed to return directly to MDRS. We had difficulty crossing the deeply incised ephemeral streambeds of the outwash plain at the base of Skyline Rim, but we were well on track to the Hab within approximately 20 minutes.
 +
 +
On top of the unnamed ridge behind the Hab, Vora's ATV stalled several times, eventually refusing to restart. After struggling with the ATV for approximately 20 to 30 minutes, we determined we could safely return to the Hab on a single ATV. Beedle felt the circumstances (Vora chilled, weather deteriorating) warranted the risk associated with return on a single ATV. Upon approach, Vora alerted HabComm that we would need hot liquids and warm clothing. Vora and Beedle successfully completed re-pressurization simulation at 1445.
 +
 +
'''PRE EVA OPERATIONS'''
 +
 +
Nominal suit donning and preparation. Review of data from previous visits to Skyline Rim. Plotted previous waypoint data on field maps.
 +
 +
'''AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS'''
 +
 +
Nominal egress and ingress. Radio check on handsets worked normally.
 +
 +
'''HAB EVA MONITORING'''
 +
 +
'''POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP'''
 +
 +
Normal clean-up. Vora was warmed in the Hab lab with Hot Chocolate and blankets.p.
 +
 +
'''EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED'''
 +
 +
'''EVA CDR:''' Navigation with GPS and maps was successful, but required frequent stopping to verify position due to lack of landmarks across the outwash plain. Concur with Grieger (EVA33) that it would be a good idea to mount the GPS devices visible to the ATV drivers, possibly with a quick-release mechanism to allow the deivices to be easily detached while working away from the ATV. Beedle actually drove ATV while holding the GPS.
 +
 +
Particularly because we were working in deep canyons during deteriorating weather, we tried to remain alert to changing conditions. When the temperature dropped rapidly, accompanied by strong winds, we decided to begin heading out of the canyon.
 +
 +
We were very successful in finding good exposures based on the descriptions of the area from the team who previously visited the area. This demonstrates that we could do sustained, long-term studies at MDRS across several crew rotations.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS1:''' One objective of this EVA was to gather fresh biological samples from an area that Crew 1 (EVA8) had reported as containing halophilic bacteria. We chose the area around Waypoints 62 and 64 out of three potential sites because we believed it would provide a more unique environment than the other two sites (Waypoints 69-75 and Candor Chasma), which were potentially similar to each other. Biological samples were gathered from three sites and possibly represent 3 different types of salt deposits. Biological analysis will follow. Falcon tubes rather than baggies were used for sampling in an effort to increase the level of sterility during sampling. Forceps greatly facilitated the sampling process.
 +
----'''EVA 35'''
 +
 +
EVA Overview Table Not Included in Report
 +
 +
'''EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)'''
 +
 +
The Hab crew, after a warming lunch, reached a consensus to do a full-group EVA to recover the stalled, abandoned ATV on the ridge behind the Hab.
 +
 +
We went out with Carlstrom driving the remaining ATV carrying tools, a tow rope, flashlights and a bottle of motor oil. Beedle, Dory followed on foot, with Beedle directing the crew to the location of the abandoned ATV. Grieger, Vora and Sklar followed on foot (out of sim) to document the recovery.
 +
 +
The EVA team diagnosed a possible bad sparkplug, but were unable to remove the plug with the available tools, within the restrictions of sim (helmets prevented close viewing of engine; gloves prevented removal of plug, even with improvised tools).
 +
 +
After failing to revive the stalled ATV, with daylight diminshing and snow flurries in the air, the EVA35 team decided to tow the stalled ATV back to the Hab. The ATV was pushed/ridden (Dory/Beedle) in neutral to a flat area at the base of the ridge, where it was towed (Carlstrom/Dory) back to the Hab.
 +
 +
'''PRE EVA OPERATIONS'''
 +
 +
Normal suit donning and preparation, including packing as many tools as felt were necessary to potential repair ATV
 +
 +
'''AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS'''
 +
 +
Egress was approximately 1 minutes as team was concerned about losing daylight (non-normal sim ops). Radio check on handsets worked normally.
 +
 +
'''HAB EVA MONITORING'''
 +
 +
Please note, HabComm accompanied EVA35 team, and was in nearly constant direct voice communication.
 +
 +
'''POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP'''
 +
 +
Normal ingress and clean-up.
 +
 +
'''EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED'''
 +
 +
'''EVA CDR:''' I'm very grateful for the support of our team, particularly with respect to our hurried return from EVA34.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS1:''' Well, I personally felt frustrated that our ATV's have been breaking down to the point that we are down to a single ATV. WE did find however that it was not very difficult to tow one ATV with another.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS2:''' This EVA was particularly interesting for me (Engineer) from the perspective that Mars explorers are bound to end up performing unexpected fixes in the field. Suits for EVA severely impair the ability to manipulate tools and perform repairs. While suits can be designed to improve manual dexterity, there are limits. Ultimately, all equipment, particularly light rovers will have to be designed to be VERY reliable and be highly serviceable when inevitable breakdowns do occur.
 +
 +
=March 18, 2002=
 +
==MDRS Log Book==
 +
MDRS Log, Commander Grieger
 +
 +
Last night it was well after midnight when Stacey left. Although we all know each other not more than one week, it seems to us as if we have trained together to go to Mars for months. Thus we were really sad when Stacey left. Besides the fact that she was the only one who was already a little bit familiar with the facilities of the Station when we arrived, we all appreciated her way she gets billions of things done almost unoticed. May be she is the one of us most dedicated to go to Mars, both in a human and in a personal perspective.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.0730
 +
 +
My alarm clock rings. The night was short, it takes me about fifteen minutes to get awake enough to stand up.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.0830
 +
 +
Breakfast. Cooking eggs today. Is it neccessary to poke a hole in the shell to prevent it from cracking? We poke four of six eggs, the other two not. One of the not poked eggs crack, all others are fine. May somebody else run a statistical test on this, we don't have a table of the Student-T-Distribution at our disposal ...
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.0915
 +
 +
EVA briefing. Main objective of today's EVA 36 is to make our new crew member Sybil familiar with the space suit and with the surroundings of the hab.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.1015
 +
 +
Beginning EVA preparation.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.1030
 +
 +
A service man for our BioLet toilett shows up. This is a device just recently installed in the hab and we had a little "smelling'' problem. He added some appropriate composting material and adjusts the ventilation hose. Especially for the ladies, the most stunning news of today is that - in contrast to our instructions, which obviously refer to the previously installed Incinolet - we ARE alloweded to urinate into the BioLet.''
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.1106
 +
 +
The five members of EVA 36 enter the airlock.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1111
 +
 +
Egression completed. EVA 36 member Sybil plants our Martian flag which was recently brought down due to strong wind and the team departures.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.1135
 +
 +
EVA comm check, OK. They can be seen from the hab.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1155
 +
 +
EVA 36 reports that the team had split up and that two members are on the way back to the hab.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1205
 +
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Two members are back in the airlock.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1210
 +
 +
Regression completed. One of the EVA members is not well. We prepare hot tea and HSO (Health and Safety Officer) Jon reports the medical issue to the flight surgeon.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1242
 +
 +
The other three members of EVA 36 are back in the airlock.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.1247
 +
 +
Regression completed. Debriefing of EVA
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1315
 +
 +
Start working on the flat tire of one ATV. The tire is inflated with an instant tire repair kit. To allow distribution of the sealing material in the tire, I ride the ATV for a few kilometers and than check the lock nuts again.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1345
 +
 +
Back to full ATV strength.
 +
 +
We have lunch and a discussion on water recycling starts, which is inspired by Sybil, who works in this area.
 +
 +
We make plans for tomorrow when a New York Times reporter will show up and stay in the hab for 24 hours. We like him to get an as much as possible complete impression of what is going on her, but we also like to continue our scientific program.
 +
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Time 2002.0318.1440
 +
 +
We look after the spare generator, that we did not manage to start when the main generator broke down Wednesday.
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Time 2002.0318.1445
 +
 +
Spare generator up and running. Darkness and exitement must have hindered us to put all switches and valves to the correct settings when we tried to start it Wednesday night.
 +
 +
Besides working on the waypoint database and an today's reports, the usual housekeeping activities are due. Today the crew - including me - is a little bit exhausted from the last busy days. We spend the afternoon more relaxed than usual to gain new motivation for tomorrow.
 +
 +
We have the idea to create an evaluation report of our rotation in MDRS. We collect a lot of issues we like to address. This will be worked out in more detail during the remaining days.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0318.1930
 +
 +
For dinner we have "Martian Strata''. This is almost, although not completely, absolutely not like Mexican Lasagne.''
 +
 +
We discuss the manned exploration of Mars and how our work can contribute to it. This is more interesting than writing this log. Signing off for today.
 +
 +
==Engineering Report==
 +
Jonathan Dory
 +
 +
Water Systems: Water was filled again tonight to 61 gallons. The last fill was three days ago, since which time we have used only 50 gallons. We're using only 17 gallons per day, which is what we were losing before we identified the reverse osmosis filter leak - not bad for a not too smelly crew of 6 in the desert.
 +
 +
Power and Fuel: We had a fuse blow on the generator this morning while there were very few power hungry appliances running. Hmmm... Haven't figured that one out yet, but the fix was just and pre-coffee trip to the generator
 +
 +
EVA Equipment (including ATVs): We performed an emergency recognizance EVA today in order to recover an ATV that was stalled during EVA 34 (See EVA 35 report). We attempted to repair the ATV in the field but diagnosed the problem as a "sparks" issue. Having no spare spark plugs with us and having additional difficulty accessing the engine compartment with EVA gloves on, we decided to tow the ATV back to hab. The very short tow rope (less than 2 1/2 meters) was a concern, but found that keeping the towing ATV in first gear and keeping the towed ATV brakes depressed worked quite well on the steep negative grades coming back to the hab. We are now down to one ATV as the automatic transmission ATV has a flat tire that we are in the process of repairing. That ATV is up on blocks. Fortunately, "there are no shortage of stones here" as our wise commander so elegantly put it.
 +
 +
Safety: Wind took the hatch from the upper deck today because it had only been temporarily secured after roof damage inspection. The hatch was damaged in the process, so a new one was constructed. Because the hatch doubles as an emergency egress hatch, the new one will be attached by hinges and a quick release pin. The previous hatch had been bolted, which may have prevented quick access through the hatch. With the new hatch and newly secured anchor, emergency egress through the roof should be much safer.
 +
 +
Computers and Communications: None.
 +
 +
General Maintenance & Waste Management: The "bugs" and composting material for the Biolet have arrived! The situation has much improved and we look forward to future rotations of sanitary odor free waste composting.
 +
 +
Roof Repair: The roof repair is complete. The Engineer repelled down the roof (out of sim) with safe belay from Erik below. The repair was completed with rubber roofing material placed, glued and screwed to the roof under the tear, and then the torn material glued on top and screwed into position. Each screw was placed into a bed of silicone to keep it from introducing a leak into the roof. The crew had considered attempting this repair in sim in order to demonstrate the ability to perform such repairs on a real Mars mission. We decided however that EVA repairs have been sufficiently demonstrated by NASA on such missions as the recent STS-109 Hubble Servicing Mission 3B in which several components that were not designed to be serviced in orbit were repaired or replaced. Too, such a roof repair would not be required on Mars as dynamic pressures caused by high winds are low there due to the low atmospheric density.
 +
 +
==EVA Report==
 +
Nell Beedle
 +
 +
EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW
 +
 +
Today's EVA 36 primary objective was to introduce our new crewmember, Sybil Sharavelle, to the EVA suit and the immediate area around the Hab.
 +
 +
DATE: 03-18-02
 +
 +
EVA 36 Stat Table
 +
 +
EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)
 +
 +
Five out of six crewmembers suited up to introduce our newest team member to the area around the Hab. Sybil Sharavelle's first official task was to re-erect the MDRS flag. The flag was struck 16 March due to high winds. Jonathan Dory then gave Sharavelle a walking tour of the area around the Hab. The entire crew then took an approximately half-hour exploration of the low hills around the Hab, giving Sharavelle a chance to walk-about in the EVA suit for the first time.
 +
 +
After about a half-hour, Dory and Carlstrom returned to the Hab. Beedle, Vora and Sharavelle continued examining the low hills around the Hab for fossils. Beedle and Vora introduced Sharavelle to the general features of the local geology as can be observed in the area. Both GPS units failed at approximately 1200hr, but the remaining EVA crewmembers were in sight of the lab, and were able to navigate via landmarks.
 +
 +
PRE EVA OPERATIONS
 +
 +
Normal suit donning and preparation.
 +
 +
AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS
 +
 +
Normal airlock ingress/depress. Note that five of six crewmembers fit into airlock. Six would be a squeeze. Radio check on handsets worked normally.
 +
 +
HAB EVA MONITORING
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK
 +
(Hourly Operation)
 +
!Comm ck
 +
1
 +
!Comm ck
 +
2
 +
!Comm ck
 +
3
 +
!Comm ck
 +
4
 +
!Comm ck
 +
5
 +
!Comm ck
 +
6
 +
|-
 +
|'''TIME'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA #'''
 +
'''(If Simultaneous EVAs)'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''ATV Odometer'''
 +
'''OUT/IN'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED MAP LOCATION'''
 +
|Hab (visual contact as well)
 +
|750m east of Hab
 +
|Hab
 +
|1500 m
 +
 +
east of Hab
 +
|Hab
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED STATUS'''
 +
|OK
 +
|OK
 +
|OK
 +
|OK
 +
|OK
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''Auxiliary Information'''
 +
|
 +
|Dory/Carls team
 +
 +
returning to Hab
 +
|Dory/Carls
 +
 +
team returning
 +
 +
to Hab
 +
|Report GPS
 +
 +
out
 +
|Beedle/Vora/
 +
 +
Sharavelle return
 +
 +
to HAB
 +
|
 +
|}POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP
 +
 +
Normal ingress and clean-up.
 +
 +
EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED
 +
 +
EVA CDR: Sybil already has extensive knowledge of the Hab and EVA suit construction, which will benefit the team. We decided to teach Sybil how to handle an ATV out of sim, so that the first lesson wouldn't be complicated by communication or EVA suit restrictions. Upon reflection, the team agrees that it is probably not wise to leave a single person along in the Hab. We resolve always to have two team members ("buddies") in the Hab.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS1: Today was my first EVA experience and I found it amazing how much I really felt like I was on a Mars mission. The space suit created a real sense of separation from the environment. I found that I even looked at things in a totally different way than I have before going on hikes or walks in Utah. I noticed geological features more and observed things in a more analytical manner. It was more difficult to navigate our way around than I would have expected. A more detailed map would be highly useful. The suit became slightly uncomfortable toward the end of the EVA. Due to my small shoulder size the helmet did not fit correctly on my shoulders and pushed the back of my head forward, eventually causing neck pain. This was not intolerable, but slightly uncomfortable and may have become intolerable on a longer EVA. The failure of both GPS devices was not a problem today, but was a little bothersome when thinking about more distant EVAs.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS2: Today's EVA did not have any specific biological objectives. We were looking for fossils, but we did not intend to perform any further analyses on them. To me, the object of today's exercise was to follow another crew's coordinates to an interesting location. However, I do not believe that objective was achieved, as we could not match the coordinates to the description of the location. This was my first pedestrian EVA. My only problem was the constant shifting of the weight of my pack from my hips to my shoulders. It is difficult to make the proper equipment adjustments in sim. My back and shoulders were fatigued by the end of the EVA. Also, the tendency of the helmet to fall forward so that the back rests on the back of my head makes walking with my head upright more difficult than it should be.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS3: Today's EVA was also my first pedestrian EVA. Because this was Sibyl's first EVA ever and because we were so closed to the Hab, I tried to take the perspective that this was one of our first EVA's after arriving on Mars. In this exercise, I imagined that all of my prior knowledge of the area from previous EVA's was in fact from prior training before the mission. It is my feeling that the first Martian explorers will have intimately knowledge of the surroundings of their landing site before they arrive. Already we have higher resolution maps of the Martian surface than we have of the Earth's surface (due to ocean coverage). I believe that once the first astronauts arrive on Mars, they will feel quite familiar with the site contrary to the "terra incognita" scheme commonly portrayed in fiction.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS4: I have nothing to add to this report.
 +
 +
=March 19, 2002=
 +
==MDRS Log Book==
 +
Björn Grieger<blockquote>This morning I get up a little bit earlier to switch on the water heater as some of us are envisaging their second shower during this rotation. The high power consumption of the water heater has caused breakdowns of our power system when we last activated it, therefore I first deactivate almost all other devies (Fridges, BioLet, lights, music).</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.0705</blockquote><blockquote>Switching on hot water. While waiting that the water warms up, I would like to have a coffee, but I do not dare to use the coffee machine simultaneously.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.0725</blockquote><blockquote>Switching hot water off.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.0730</blockquote><blockquote>Jon and me have showers. It's ... hm, not warm. It seems to take some time before the warm water reaches the shower through the hoses. When we all six head showers one after the other last thursday, the first and last were also "not warm".</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0318.0800</blockquote><blockquote>BIG breakfast, bacon, pancakes. We put together a shopping list for the next rotation, things we think they may like to have and also things that are already her in large amounts (e.g. bacon). This leads us to a general discussion of food and water issues for a Mars mission.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.0830</blockquote><blockquote>Nell and Sybil go out to get our new crew member an ATV introduction. After that they come back in to resume breakfast.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0318.0930</blockquote><blockquote>The envisaged reporter and a photographer from New York Times show up. They talk with the complete crew at the breakfast table, then Jon shows them around.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1030</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 37 (comprising Nell and Sybil) suit donning with the reporters around.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1106</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 37 enters the airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1111</blockquote><blockquote>Egression completed. EVA 37 departs on ATVs to nvestigate Candor Chasma.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1115</blockquote><blockquote>Suit donning of EVA 38. The team comprises Tiff, Jon and the New York Times reporter, who we finally managed to talk into this.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1149</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 38 enters the airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1154</blockquote><blockquote>Egression completed, EVA 38 departs walking up the local ridge.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1219</blockquote><blockquote>Comm check EVA 38. OK.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1233</blockquote><blockquote>Comm check EVA 37, coordinates reported.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1302</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 38 back in airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1307</blockquote><blockquote>Regression completed.</blockquote><blockquote>We have lunch together with the New York Times people, and then we are interviewed one by one. The crewmembers not occupied start working on reports or in the laboratory.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1500</blockquote><blockquote>Individual interviews completed. A continuously changing subset of crew members (the ones ocasionally taking breaks from their work) discusses all issues of manned space flight with the reporters.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1536</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 37 is back in airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1541</blockquote><blockquote>Regression completed.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1550</blockquote><blockquote>Reporter goes for wine.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1600</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 37 members back in living compartment, they have (late) lunch. Now it's their turn to be interviewed.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1715</blockquote><blockquote>We go out for a group photo for the New York Times, off sim, with suits but no back packs, and helmets in the hands.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1745</blockquote><blockquote>Back in, already preparing the dinner in advance, "Alan Shepard's Pie", see the Mars cookbook.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1750</blockquote><blockquote>The photographer leaves (but the reporter is going to stay for the night).</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1800</blockquote><blockquote>Preparation of comet EVA 39. We plan a night EVA to observe a comet that should be visible in the western evening sky. We do this night EVA in semi sim mode, i.e. Jon and me are in full sim wearing the suits, the others accompany us off sim.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1843</blockquote><blockquote>Jon and me enter the airlock. Looking through the small window in the outer door of the airlock and seeing the evening sky over the Martian like landscape is very impressive. EVAs are not as much a routine for me as I thought.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1848</blockquote><blockquote>Egression completed. Stepping out into the dusk. The sun already sank behind the local ridge, the sky is deep blue, the crescent of the moon shines bright.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0319.1955</blockquote><blockquote>Jon and me back in the airlock. This night EVA was an extraordinary experience for me, see the EVA 39 report.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.3019.2000</blockquote><blockquote>Regression completed. As Dinner was prepared in advance, we shall sit down for it in a few minutes und speak about our experiences. After that we shall write today's geology report and tonight's EVA 39 report. Closing the log for today.</blockquote>
 +
 +
==EVA 37 Report==
 +
Sybil Sharvelle
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Collect gypsum
 +
samples from
 +
 +
Candor Chasma
 +
!
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|Eric Carlstrom
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|MDRS3
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Beedle-2
 +
|Sharvelle-3
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|11:06
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME:  Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|15:41
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
'''*EVA HIGHLIGHTS (EVA CDR)'''
 +
 +
ATVs were driven to a road location near Candor Chasma and went the rest of the way by foot. We were a
 +
 +
little off track in the beginning, but found our way without too much difficulty. The GPS device was extremely
 +
 +
helpful in keeping us on track. Upon arrival to the canyon we immediately found abundant gypsum
 +
 +
throughout the canyon walls. Gypsum samples were chipped from canyon walls but there was no clear
 +
 +
evidence of microbial life. We were not able to walk through the entire canyon, but took samples from various
 +
 +
locations on the west side.
 +
 +
'''PRE EVA OPERATIONS'''
 +
 +
Normal suiting up operations were undergone plus some explanation of gypsum and the geological history of
 +
 +
Candor Chasma from Nell to Sybil.
 +
 +
'''AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS'''
 +
 +
Nominal ingress, degress, and radio check.
 +
 +
'''HAB EVA MONITORING'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK
 +
(Hourly Operation)
 +
!Comm ck
 +
1
 +
!Comm ck
 +
2
 +
!Comm ck
 +
3
 +
!Comm ck
 +
4
 +
!Comm ck
 +
5
 +
!Comm ck
 +
6
 +
|-
 +
|'''TIME'''
 +
|1233
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA #'''
 +
'''(If Simultaneous EVAs)'''
 +
|37
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''ATV Odometer'''
 +
'''OUT/IN'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED MAP LOCATION'''
 +
|425142N
 +
 +
520317E
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED STATUS'''
 +
|Going into canyon
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''Auxiliary Information'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
'''EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED'''
 +
 +
'''EVA CDR:''' Once again, the Magellan300 failed us, while the Magellan310 worked. Surprisingly, we got
 +
 +
good satellite coverage down in the deep canyon, no doubt because the canyon floor is quite wide in places.
 +
 +
So even though the canyon walls are in places 20 to 30 meters high, we had GPS positioning. However, there
 +
 +
were no comms with the Hab, but we could communicate with EVA38 on Hab Ridge.
 +
 +
It was quite apparent after today that these suits will be very uncomfortable in the heat of the day within a
 +
 +
couple of weeks. The high recorded at the Hab today 23degreesC. One solution may be to start EVA work just
 +
 +
after sunrise, and try to get as much work done before high noon as possible.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS1:''' Our EVA today was incredibly enjoyable. The scenery and weather was amazing. I found
 +
 +
driving around on the ATV with a space suit on to be quite fun. I was able to resolve most of my suit comfort
 +
 +
issues today by adjusting the backpack to better fit. However, I did have issues with my hair falling out of the
 +
 +
rubber band that I had it tied back in. It definitely obstructed my view. This is an issue I had not thought of
 +
 +
prior to our departure. This is something I need to ensure does not happen again in the future. We had a few
 +
 +
minor diversions from the path today but were easily able to get back on track using the GPS.
 +
 +
==EVA 38 Report==
 +
Jonathan Dory
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Media (NY Times)
 +
tour of Hab Ridge
 +
!
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|Eric Carlstrom
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|MDRS3
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Jonathan Dory
 +
EVA/5
 +
|Tiffany Vora EVA/6
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|11:49
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|N/a / 1307
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
'''EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)'''
 +
 +
This was a relatively brief pedestrian EVA with Tiffany and I hosting New York Times Reporter Blaine Harden and freelance photographer Mickey Krakowski in a tour of the Hab ridge and surrounding area. Harden was in full EVA suit, at the crew’s recommendation, so that he could document the experience of working in the field under Mars conditions.
 +
 +
'''PRE EVA OPERATIONS'''
 +
 +
Normal suit donning operations. Blaine was instructed on the design, operation, and simulation intent of the suits.
 +
 +
'''AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS'''
 +
 +
Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally, however EVA 37 was still in range of radios on frequency 2:00, as EVA 38 suit donning operations began immediately following EVA 37 egress, so there was initial confusion when EVA 37 overheard EVA 38 com checks.
 +
 +
'''HAB EVA MONITORING'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK
 +
(Hourly Operation)
 +
!Comm ck
 +
1
 +
!Comm ck
 +
2
 +
!Comm ck
 +
3
 +
!Comm ck
 +
4
 +
!Comm ck
 +
5
 +
!Comm ck
 +
6
 +
|-
 +
|'''TIME'''
 +
|1219
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA #'''
 +
'''(If Simultaneous EVAs)'''
 +
|EVA 38
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''ATV Odometer'''
 +
'''OUT/IN'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED MAP LOCATION'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED STATUS'''
 +
|OK
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''Auxiliary Information'''
 +
|Excellent communication
 +
 +
from top of Hab Ridge.
 +
 +
Too, EVA 37 comm check
 +
 +
could easily be heard on
 +
 +
channel 2:00
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
'''EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED'''
 +
 +
'''EVA CDR:''' This was a particularly rewarding EVA in terms of the view from atop Hab Ridge. Today was a very clear day with no visible cloud cover. This was my first trip to the top of the ridge, and this was a great opportunity to view the local geological "neighborhood" of our Hab. One interesting observation was the abundance of jet contrails moving linearly from horizon to horizon over the high altitude desert. While simulation implied being lone explorers on an uninhabited alien world, it’s hard not to be impressed by the aerial highway above, with hundreds of human travelers at the tip of every white streak in the sky.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS1:''' I thoroughly enjoyed today’s EVA. This was my second trip to the top of the ridge overlooking the Lower Blue Hills, but since I was walking this time, it was a completely different experience. Driving the ATV requires my complete attention, and I am unable to watch the scenery. Today, however, I was able to appreciate my surroundings – it occurred to me that the trip to Mars would be worth it for scenery a quarter as beautiful as that around the hab. We walked along the ridge to a place where we found a veritable carpet of bivalve fossils, which we have identified as Gryphaea. We believe this is the point described by a previous crew as containing abundant fossils. Our visitors experienced an EVA that was both safe and productive without being overambitious.
 +
 +
==EVA 39 Report==
 +
Björn Grieger
 +
 +
EVA Scenario Overview:
 +
 +
Tonight&amp;rsquo;s EVA 39 objective was the observation of a comet that should be visible in the western evening
 +
 +
sky. In general we intended to gain some experience with night EVAs. For safety reasons, we performed the EVA
 +
 +
in "semi sim mode", i.e. the two EVA team members are in full sim mode, but the rest of the crew accompanies
 +
 +
them off sim.
 +
 +
EVA CALL SIGN: EVA-39
 +
 +
DATE: 03-19-02                            
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Walking up the
 +
local ridge
 +
!
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|MDRS3
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Bjoern/1
 +
|Jon/5
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|18:43
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME:  Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|20:00
 +
|
 +
|}                 
 +
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki>EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)
 +
 +
Standing in the space suit on the local ridge while the daylight slowly vanishes and the stars appear in the sky was
 +
 +
an extraordinary experience. We could not observe the comet, presumably because Venus was close to its position
 +
 +
and her bright light may have washed it out. But that was not the point. Usually, on an EVA, the space suit and the
 +
 +
helmet isolates me from the environment and my perception of the impressive landscape here is attenuated. But
 +
 +
tonight seeing the starry sky through the dome of my helmet, I felt myself being closer to the stars than ever before.
 +
 +
PRE EVA OPERATIONS
 +
 +
Nominal suit donning and preparation.
 +
 +
AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS
 +
 +
Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally, however EVA 37 was still in range of
 +
 +
radios on frequency 2:00, as EVA 38 suit donning operations began immediately following EVA 37 egress, so
 +
 +
there was initial confusion when EVA 37 overheard EVA 38 com checks.
 +
 +
HAB EVA MONITORING
 +
 +
None.
 +
 +
EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED
 +
 +
EVA CDR: I dressed very warm under the space suit for this night EVA (long undertrousers, thermal shirt). At
 +
 +
first, walking up the local ridge, I thought that I was dressed too warm, but standing up there for a while, I felt quite
 +
 +
comfortable.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS1: The night EVA was particularly rewarding. The headlamps and wrist lights that we attached to the
 +
 +
suit worked quite well and we felt very safe navigating our position in the field. Our full intention was given to the
 +
 +
stars and planets above. I enjoyed imagining that we were viewing the heavens from the surface of Mars, where the
 +
 +
constellations would look much the same. How strange it would be to look back on the single bright point in the
 +
 +
sky called Earth.
 +
 +
=March 20, 2002=
 +
==MDRS Log Book==
 +
Commander Grieger
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.0700
 +
 +
I am awake, but I enjoy just laying in my sleeping bag until my alarm clock rings at 0730. In fact I feel much more
 +
 +
comfortable in my sleeping bag on the self-inflating air matrasse than I had expected. Well, I have to admit that I
 +
 +
brought a real pillow. I hope I shall also be allowed to do this in the actual Mars mission ...
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.0815
 +
 +
Breakfast, again bacon. We have a lot of that - and the next crew rotation will still have a lot of it.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.0900
 +
 +
Briefing of today's EVA. We shall continue the exploration of Candor Chasma that has been visited yesterday by
 +
 +
EVA 37. This time we shall concentrate on biological samples.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.0930
 +
 +
EVA 40 preparation, team conprises Till, Sybil and me.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.0955
 +
 +
EVA 40 team enters the airlock to depart to Candor Chasma.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.1305
 +
 +
EVA team is back in the hab. It has been pretty warm during the EVA. The hab's weather station reports a
 +
 +
maximum temperature of 30.2C. We do debriefing of the EVA and voice recordings of our impressions. We shall
 +
 +
try to avoid EVAs during the hotest hours of the day if the high temperatures persist. In the near future, cooling
 +
 +
systems will be installed in the space suits.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.1330
 +
 +
Erik prepares Lunch for all.
 +
 +
As both cameras we had taken with us failed, there are no pictures from today's EVA. Therefore I now take some
 +
 +
pictures from our "daily life on Mars" and transmit them to Mission Support.
 +
 +
The afternoon continues with our usual work, i.e. writing reports on our scientific work and accomplishing the
 +
 +
neccesary housekeeping activities (generator and water tank refill etc.), but at some time the decreasing number of
 +
 +
days remaining for our work at MDRS comes to our mind. Today is Wednesday, and our rotation will end on
 +
 +
Sunday. Considering that we need the last day for packing our stuff, cleaning up and hand-over of the station, there
 +
 +
are only three days left. Besides furhter scientific work and EVA explorations (and handling media coverage by
 +
 +
German FOCUS TV on Friday), we have to create several overview documents about our work and our
 +
 +
impressions. This comprises also updating the way point database and the station manual. Moreover, we like to
 +
 +
write up a general evaluation of the two weeks we spend at MDRS. We notice that we must begin with the
 +
 +
coordination of these tasks right now.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.1830
 +
 +
Dinner, BarsoomBQ created by Nell and Sybil.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.1930
 +
 +
We start with a brainstorming on issues for our evaluation and then structure the results and attribute tasks to crew
 +
 +
members. If I have not already mentioned it elsewhere, this team really excellently works together.
 +
 +
Time 2002.0320.2100
 +
 +
We split up and work on finishing the reports for today and on cleaning the dishes from the dinner. We plan to have
 +
 +
everything done by 2230 and possibly watch a movie.
 +
 +
Closing the log for today.
 +
 +
==EVA 40 Report==
 +
Tiffany Vora
 +
 +
EVA Scenario Overview
 +
 +
Today's EVA was focused on collecting biological samples in Candor Chasma.
 +
 +
EVA Call Sign: EVA-40
 +
 +
DATE: 03-20-02                            
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Candor Chasma - bio
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|Beedle
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Vora/6
 +
|Sharvelle/3
 +
|Grieger/1
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|9:55
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|13:05
 +
|}                 
 +
 +
EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)
 +
 +
Candor Chasma is a remarkable site for both biologists and geologists. I sampled four sites for possible halophilic
 +
 +
bacteria. One of those sites (#1) included a water seep which caused varied salt formation in the rock overhang.
 +
 +
Today was a clear day, and the sun made the bottom of the chasma rather hot. We moved among shady spots and
 +
 +
liberally consumed our water. Sybil did an admirable job navigating to the chasma, and we entered in a slightly
 +
 +
different location than was used on EVA37. Unfortunately, we were able to take no pictures, as one digital camera
 +
 +
had no disk and Bjoern&amp;rsquo;s spy camera ran out of power. I guarantee that those mistakes will not be made by
 +
 +
this crew again. During our return we spotted two indigenous organisms, a biped and a quadriped. Neither
 +
 +
responded to our attempts at contact, but observed our movements.
 +
 +
PRE EVA OPERATIONS
 +
 +
Normal staging and suiting up.
 +
 +
AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS
 +
 +
Normal ingress and depress. Radio checks completed.
 +
 +
HAB EVA MONITORING                
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK
 +
(Hourly Operation)
 +
!Comm ck
 +
1
 +
!Comm ck
 +
2
 +
!Comm ck
 +
3
 +
!Comm ck
 +
4
 +
!Comm ck
 +
5
 +
!Comm ck
 +
6
 +
|-
 +
|'''TIME'''
 +
|10:20
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA #'''
 +
'''(If Simultaneous EVAs)'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''ATV Odometer'''
 +
'''OUT/IN'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED MAP LOCATION'''
 +
|4251978N
 +
 +
519700E
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED STATUS'''
 +
|OK
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''Auxiliary Information'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}                      
 +
 +
Text for EVA Monitoring:
 +
 +
The nature of the terrain prohibited frequent communication between hab and EVA.
 +
 +
EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED
 +
 +
EVA CDR: I strongly recommend that crews rotating in the warmer months design their EVAs to take place
 +
 +
between 7-10 am and 2-6 pm or later as the days become longer. It is highly inadvisable to be on EVA during the
 +
 +
hottest hours of the day. However, we were pleased at the lack of clouds, as we did not have to worry about flash
 +
 +
flooding. I tested the third point of restraint on my helmet during this EVA, and I found that holding the helmet in
 +
 +
place is more comfortable, but seeing myself or manipulating my pockets became far more difficult. I am also
 +
 +
concerned about cross-contamination between biological samples from the sampling tools while in the field. I will
 +
 +
test a system during my next EVA.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS1: Today&amp;rsquo;s EVA was a success. I was the designated navigator, being that I had visited the
 +
 +
site yesterday during EVA 37. I was mostly successful in getting us there quickly and efficiently, as I only got us off
 +
 +
track for about 5 minutes. Today was extremely hot, hotter than yesterday. Current outdoor temperature is 21.7C
 +
 +
at local time 15:11. A cooling system for the suits should be implemented ASAP. We had issues with the camera
 +
 +
today, as we forgot to bring the disk. Bjorn had brought his own camera, which we were able to use until the
 +
 +
batteries ran out and we lost all data. We may want to consider making a very short checklist posted in the EVA
 +
 +
room. Some reported that I drove the ATV like a "bat out of hell." However, I can assure all that I was completely
 +
 +
safe.
 +
 +
EVA MDRS2: During this EVA my task should have been to document the sampling by taking pictures and I was
 +
 +
also still looking for rock covered by sand to investigate the colors. I indeed found such rock and took images, but
 +
 +
shortly before our return point in Candor Chasma my camera lost power and erased all the images, and &amp;ndash; as
 +
 +
already mentioned &amp;ndash; the other camera did also not work.. As I was not longer busy with taking images on
 +
 +
the way back, I could take some closer look at the rich sedimentation features.
 +
 +
==Biology Report==
 +
<blockquote>Tiffany Vora Reporting</blockquote><blockquote>This morning’s EVA, EVA40, was specifically designed to sample areas of Candor Chasma that potentially have biological significance. Please refer to the Geology report (Beedle and Sharvelle) of March 19 (EVA37) for a complete description of the geological features of the canyon. No photographs of EVA40 sample sites can be shown because we experienced failure with both our digital cameras (for different reasons).</blockquote><blockquote>Sample site 1 (UTM 4251209N, 520232E) was extremely interesting from a biological point of view. The site was a shady undercut region of the cliff that was at most 0.5m deep. The site first caught my eye because thin yellowish plants appeared to be growing directly out of the rock. Salt formations were present in different morphologies, such as stalactites from the overhang and nodular regions that were yellowish-tinged. Upon closer inspection, it became evident that water was actually seeping out of the rock into the overhang approximately 0.75m from the base of the rock. I sampled moist nodular salt formations into a 50 mL Falcon tube with gentle forcep technique, and by the time I had returned to the hab, the sample had hardened to cake-frosting consistency. To my extreme dismay, I have no available picture of the sample site. Perhaps tomorrow’s EVA will return with a suitable photograph. Sample site 1 has been designated Way Point 86 for future analysis.</blockquote><blockquote>Sample site 2 (UTM 4251177N, 520310E) was designated as Way Point 83 in yesterday’s EVA37. The region was a North/South trending overhang in deep shade. There was no visible water at the site. By scraping with a spoon, I sampled a slab of gypsum that was disturbed on EVA37 (see Fig.1)</blockquote><blockquote>''Fig. 1. Sample site 2, a fragment isolated by Beedle and Sharvelle on EVA37.''</blockquote><blockquote>My sampling technique resulted in a fine white powder rather than discrete rock chips, which is not unexpected due to the exceptional softness of gypsum.</blockquote><blockquote>Sample site 3 (UTM 4251123N, 520283E) was not of particular biological importance, but I was curious about an aspect of the site, so I took a sample. Sample site 3 was Northeast facing and in deep shade. The rock contained stubbled veins of gypsum with regions of pure white or a dingier hue – almost green in the shade. I was interested in the small flecks of red that speckled the gypsum veins, and so I took a sample. We now believe that the red particles were mineral rather than biotic. As this stop was only a curiosity, no Way Point designation was made.</blockquote><blockquote>Sample site 4 (UTM 4251076N, 520375E) is potentially of great interest to future biological teams. Cuboidal veins of white (gypsum) shot through a shady, Northeast facing section of cliff at about head level (for me, probably chest level for everyone else). The layers of rock surrounding the veins are the most interesting feature of this location. There are sharp demarcations between sections of rock which are oxidized and sections which are reduced (see Fig. 2):</blockquote><blockquote>''Fig. 2. In sample site 4, the boundary between the oxidized (upper, dark red), and reduced (middle, whitish-green) is dramatic. Gypsum (light brown/white) is present in veins in the oxidized section and in a rich chunk in the lower part of the formation.''</blockquote><blockquote>The oxidation of iron results in rust (the common name for oxidized iron), and in fact these iron-rich deposits are a rich reddish-purple in the oxidized sections. Reduced regions are lighter in hue, almost white. Oxidation is simply the transfer of electrons from an electron-rich molecule (the oxidizing agent) to an electron-poor molecule (which becomes reduced). Species of iron-reducing bacteria have been characterized, and this formation poses interesting questions. Are the reduced regions a direct result of the activity of iron-reducing bacteria? Once the entire region is reduced, does the colony die, or does it move to the oxidized portion? Or, even more intriguingly, would it be possible to have iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing species living in an equilibrium on the same substrate? Perhaps future biologists will be able to address these questions here in Candor Chasma.</blockquote><blockquote>On a personal note, I enjoyed the walk through Candor Chasma immensely. Today was the first day that I observed a diversity of life beyond plant forms. In the canyon, we observed bees and butterflies. Lizards scurried out from underfoot, and a bird, unseen despite our best efforts, trilled its song in the sunlight – which we could hear even through our cooled helmets. Tracks were plentiful in the canyon – dogs, antelope, snakes – and we occasionally found bones scattered in the wash. I even spotted the exoskeleton of an insect dangling from the chasm wall. I’d known intellectually that life thrives even in these isolated regions of Utah, but to actually see and hear evidence of this life was moving. These simple life forms exist in this environment; with just a bit of responsible effort on our part, we can succeed even in the inhospitable climate of Mars.</blockquote>
 +
 +
=March 21, 2002=
 +
==MDRS Log Book==
 +
<blockquote>Björn Grieger Reporting</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.0700</blockquote><blockquote>I am already awake. I stand up when the alarm clock rings at 0710. Today we are up a little bit earlier to complete an EVA before it gets too hot.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.0745</blockquote><blockquote>Breakfast. Today no bacon. We had enough of it the last days.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.0830</blockquote><blockquote>Preparation of EVA 41. We had thought that this is already a kind of routine for us, but after we forgot to put a disk in the digital camera yesterday, we put a new check list at the wall in the EVA preparation room.</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 41 is again targeted at Candor Chasma to take images of the sampling sites, which we did not accomplish yesterday.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.0911</blockquote><blockquote>EVA team 41, that is Erik and Jon, enters airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.0916</blockquote><blockquote>Egression completed, EVA 41 departs to Candor Chasma.</blockquote><blockquote>Besides the usual housekeeping tasks and work on the overview documents we have to prepare, the morning passes by with organizing our way back into civilization. That should not be too difficult, but MDRS is at a really remote location. And without telephone the arrangements of transportation and hand over of the station to the next crew rotation has to be done by email. Although we shall be here for three more days, tasks related to the forthcoming crew shift begin to eat up a significant fraction of our time.</blockquote><blockquote>Tine 2002.0321.1342</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 41 back in airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1347</blockquote><blockquote>Regression completed.</blockquote><blockquote>We immediatly start the preparation of EVA 42, which is targeted towards a petrofied wook ridge to the east of the hab. It is in walking distance, but now that EVA 41 is back in time, EVA 42 will take the ATVs.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1420</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 42, that is Nell and Sybil, enters airlock</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1450</blockquote><blockquote>The four of us remaining in the hab have Lunch/Coffee. By the side EVA 41 debriefing including voice recordings of the impressions is done.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1530</blockquote><blockquote>Start, respcetively resume, working on actual reports and general documents.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1546</blockquote><blockquote>EVA 42 is back in the airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1551</blockquote><blockquote>Regression completed.</blockquote><blockquote>When Nell and Sybil have just taken off their helmets, local visitors knock on the outer door of the airlock. It is an elderly couple who read about MDRS in the newspaper and got curious about what we do here. First I take care of them, when Nell has taken off her space suits she joins us and together we show the visitors around.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.1830</blockquote><blockquote>Dinner. This time we find do not find a suitable name for the dish. Not that it was bad, just ... our creativity seems to be used up at the moment.</blockquote><blockquote>After dinner, a really spacey discussion starts, about the colonization of Mars, of space in general, about the question wether each of us would be willing to really go to Mars if we had the opportunity. From what I have read about the other crews, all of their members would immediately take the opportunity to go on a Mars mission. But most of us would have to think about this and the decision would not be easy. We are aware of how demanding the participation in a Mars mission would be.</blockquote><blockquote>While the discussion continues among a changing subgroup, others return to working at the computers. Besides Nell's and my notebook, we have now also put the hab's notebook to operation, thus we have four working places.</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0321.2155</blockquote><blockquote>Closing the log for today.</blockquote>
 +
 +
==EVA 41 Report==
 +
''Erik Carlstrom''
 +
 +
'''EVA Scenario Overview'''
 +
 +
There were two objectives of today’s EVA. The primary objective was to get to Muddy Creek from the trail in the North Pinto Hills region and from there, to try to get as far west in Candor Chasma from the East. This would establish an ATV route through the East end of the canyon. The secondary objective was to return to the point where Tiffany Vora (Biologist) had collected a sample from a seepage point on EVA 40 and document the region with photos.
 +
 +
'''EVA Call Sign: EVA-41'''
 +
 +
'''DATE: 03-21-02'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Exploration/
 +
Observation
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|Tiffany Vora
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Carlstrom/4
 +
|Dory/5
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|0911
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME:  Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|1300/1347
 +
|}
 +
'''EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)'''
 +
 +
Today’s EVA had some interesting side routes. The main trails on the USGS maps are not always the clearest path in the field. For example, we took 2 wrong turns on our way to Candor Chasma. Once there, we went to Muddy Creek and took some pictures and then headed west along the wash towards Candor Chasma. We were able to navigate in the wash itself for the vast majority of the Canyon. There were some places where the wash wasn’t navigable by ATV, but we were able to drive just off to the side of the wash (in order to have the least amount of environmental impact). In Candor Chasma, we found many interesting rock samples, rock formations, and we revisited a seepage feature that Tiffany had discovered yesterday based on her descriptions and GPS coordinates.
 +
 +
'''PRE EVA OPERATIONS'''
 +
 +
Normal staging and suiting up.
 +
 +
'''AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS'''
 +
 +
Normal ingress and depress. Radio checks completed.
 +
 +
'''HAB EVA MONITORING'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK
 +
(Hourly Operation)
 +
!Comm ck
 +
1
 +
!Comm ck
 +
2
 +
!Comm ck
 +
3
 +
!Comm ck
 +
4
 +
!Comm ck
 +
5
 +
!Comm ck
 +
6
 +
|-
 +
|'''TIME'''
 +
|0935
 +
|1040
 +
|1115
 +
|1315
 +
|1340
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA #'''
 +
'''(If Simultaneous EVAs)'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''ATV Odometer'''
 +
'''OUT/IN'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED MAP LOCATION'''
 +
|4248338N
 +
519946E
 +
|4249470N
 +
521886E
 +
|425114N
 +
523648E
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED STATUS'''
 +
|OK
 +
|OK
 +
|OK
 +
|Returning Home
 +
|Returning Home
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''Auxiliary Information'''
 +
|Position
 +
check
 +
|Position
 +
 +
check
 +
|Position
 +
 +
check
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
'''Text for EVA Monitoring:'''
 +
 +
Terrain in Candor Chasma prevented communication with the Hab.
 +
 +
'''POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP'''
 +
 +
Normal ingress and cleanup was done.
 +
 +
'''EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED'''
 +
 +
'''EVA CDR:''' The trail into the wash just East of Candor Chasma was on a very sandy surface, so the route we took was a little steeper than necessary. If there is time, we might be able to locate the actual path into the wash. The area was very interesting geologically, and there was direct and indirect evidence of subsurface water. I would suggest any future crew geophysicists to visit the region for interesting work. While in the region, both Jon and I noticed that the presence of water (flood, rain, etc.) would be extremely dangerous.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS1:''' Today’s EVA was a success. I was the designated navigator, being that I had visited the site yesterday during EVA 37. I was mostly successful in getting us there quickly and efficiently, as I only got us off track for about 5 minutes. Today was extremely hot, hotter than yesterday. Current outdoor temperature is 21.7C at local time 15:11. A cooling system for the suits should be implemented ASAP. We had issues with the camera today, as we forgot to bring the disk. Bjorn had brought his own camera, which we were able to use until the batteries ran out and we lost all data. We may want to consider making a very short checklist posted in the EVA room. Some reported that I drove the ATV like a "bat out of hell." However, I can assure all that I was completely safe.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS2:''' This region was very interesting to visit. There are clear signs of water here, both from rainwater/flash flood, and potential subsurface flow. The seepage that we noted (N 4251227, E 520203) was clear evidence of at least localized subsurface flow. Consequently, while not accurate for Mars, there is significant foliage and wildlife in this area. It is critical that future crews who explore in this area stick to the wash channel in order to minimize their impact there. Also, because the walls of the canyon are steep, future crews must not attempt to explore this area when there is any chance of precipitation because of the risk of flash flood.
 +
 +
Personally, I found this exercise to be a big confidence booster for the use of GPS systems. Using nothing but coordinates and general descriptions, we were able to find a very specific point of interest and complete our mission objectives as well as navigate previously unknown terrain. I believe that future Mars explorers will need some type GPS system of local orienteering system for performing similar work on Mars.
 +
 +
==EVA 42 Report==
 +
''Erik Carlstrom''
 +
 +
'''EVA Scenario Overview'''
 +
 +
Today’s EVA objective was to visit Petrified Wood Ridge to confirm a hypothesis that a highly-visible, light-colored deposit is a fluvial channel.
 +
 +
'''EVA Call Sign: EVA-42'''
 +
 +
'''DATE: 03-21-02'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!EVA Scenerio
 +
!Petrified Wood
 +
Ridge
 +
!
 +
!
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA HAB COMM (s)'''
 +
|Vora
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
|CDR
 +
|MDRS1
 +
|MDRS2
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA CREW''' (Name/#)
 +
|Beedle/2
 +
|Sharvelle/3
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA START TIME (PET):'''
 +
|1420
 +
|'''EVA STOP TIME:  Scheduled/Actual'''
 +
|1551
 +
|}
 +
'''EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)'''
 +
 +
Candor Chasma is a remarkable site for both biologists and geologists. I sampled four sites for possible halophilic bacteria. One of those sites (#1) included a water seep which caused varied salt formation in the rock overhang. Today was a clear day, and the sun made the bottom of the chasma rather hot. We moved among shady spots and liberally consumed our water. Sybil did an admirable job navigating to the chasma, and we entered in a slightly different location than was used on EVA37. Unfortunately, we were able to take no pictures, as one digital camera had no disk and Bjoern’s spy camera ran out of power. I guarantee that those mistakes will not be made by this crew again. During our return we spotted two indigenous organisms, a biped and a quadriped. Neither responded to our attempts at contact, but observed our movements.
 +
 +
'''PRE EVA OPERATIONS'''
 +
 +
Normal staging and suiting up.
 +
 +
'''AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS'''
 +
 +
Normal ingress and depress. Radio checks completed.
 +
 +
'''HAB EVA MONITORING'''
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK
 +
(Hourly Operation)
 +
!Comm ck
 +
1
 +
!Comm ck
 +
2
 +
!Comm ck
 +
3
 +
!Comm ck
 +
4
 +
!Comm ck
 +
5
 +
!Comm ck
 +
6
 +
|-
 +
|'''TIME'''
 +
|1550
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''EVA #'''
 +
'''(If Simultaneous EVAs)'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''ATV Odometer'''
 +
'''OUT/IN'''
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED MAP LOCATION'''
 +
|Hab
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''REPORTED STATUS'''
 +
|OK
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
|'''Auxiliary Information'''
 +
|Return from EVA
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|}
 +
'''Text for EVA Monitoring:'''
 +
 +
The poor radio contact was surprising, particularly since we were in line-of-sight with the have while on the ridge.
 +
 +
'''POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP'''
 +
 +
Normal ingess and cleanup.
 +
 +
'''EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED'''
 +
 +
'''EVA CDR:''' We started our EVA quite late in the day. Again, we experienced very warm internal EVA suit temperatures. I would strongly advise EVA teams from now on to plan their EVA between dawn and mid-day to avoid the working in the hottest part of the day.
 +
 +
Future crews may have fewer concerns about precipitation or the threat of flash-flood, but a new concern is dehydration and/or over-heating (heat exhaustion). Crews should carry appropriate water, re-hydration formula and be aware of how to treat team members suffering from heat exhaustion.
 +
 +
Additionally, it may soon be a priority to incorporate some type of sun protection into the EVA suit helmets.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS1:''' Today’s EVA was a success. I was the designated navigator, being that I had visited the site yesterday during EVA 37. I was mostly successful in getting us there quickly and efficiently, as I only got us off track for about 5 minutes. Today was extremely hot, hotter than yesterday. Current outdoor temperature is 21.7C at local time 15:11. A cooling system for the suits should be implemented ASAP. We had issues with the camera today, as we forgot to bring the disk. Bjorn had brought his own camera, which we were able to use until the batteries ran out and we lost all data. We may want to consider making a very short checklist posted in the EVA room. Some reported that I drove the ATV like a "bat out of hell." However, I can assure all that I was completely safe.
 +
 +
'''EVA MDRS2:''' Our EVA was quite short today and ran smoothly. The diversity of the geological conditions in this relatively small area once again amazed me. I did have failure of my microphone. This is the second day out on an EVA that I have experienced failure of communication equipment, which reiterates the importance of the buddy system.
 +
 +
==Geology Report (EVA 37)==
 +
''Stacy Sklar, Nell Beedle, Jonathan Dory''
 +
 +
All positions are reported in NAD27 UTM Zone 12 (meters), with reference to the Skyline Rim Quadrangle (1:24,000).
 +
 +
We entered the main channel of Candor Chasma through a side-canyon, leaving the ATVs at 4251601N – 520188E. We had no communications with the Hab from this position.
 +
 +
The side-canyon walls are predominately gray-white (weathers tan) cross-bedded, medium to coarse-grained sandstone with interbeds of pebble conglomerate. This sandstone is the basal unit, locally, of the Morrison Formation. The conglomerate clasts are rounded, moderately to well-sorted and often clearly deposited in channels. The sandstone is the "cap rock", or resistant rock, along the canyon rim. In this area, the sandstone is approximately 5 meters thick. In many places, the canyon walls have been undercut by erosion, and large boulders of the cap rock have tumbled into the canyon.
 +
 +
Near the head of the side-canyon where we entered the system, we found an US General Land Survey benchmark from 1929 (4251254N – 520321E), which we are calling Waypoint 82. The benchmark demarks the section boundaries between R10E/R11E, and T27S/T28S. Even at this elevation, dropping into the canyon is tricky. However, there is a game trail running down into the canyon from the general vicinity of the benchmark.
 +
 +
Immediately upon entering the canyon, we encountered marine sedimentary rocks of the Summerville Formation. At Waypoint 83, we found a greenish-gray very fine-grained sandstone or siltstone (weathers reddish-orange) with extensive gypsum veining, with veins oriented predominately parallel to bedding. The gypsum in the veins often displays satin spar habit, and the veins are usually less than 2cm thick. At this locality (4251179N - 520303E), we observed a massive rock gypsum layer, ranging from 0.4m to 1.5m thick, cropping out near the base of the canyon wall. The gypsum is predominately white, but occasionally has a pinkish hue. We could follow this layer several hundred meters downstream along the main channel of the canyon, although it appears higher and higher on the walls as the canyon cuts down through the section.
 +
 +
Also near Waypoint 83 we observed a well-exposed, sandy (?) channel exposed in cross-section in the canyon wall. The channel crops out several meters above the canyon floor, and appears to be at least 1.5m thick.
 +
 +
As we walked down canyon, we encountered some interesting terrain. In one area, huge (5m diameter) boulders of the conglomeratic sandstone from the canyon rim litter the canyon floor. The canyon walls are undercut in many places, with good evidence of recent erosion (for example, intact ripple marks in the silty-sands on the canyon floor). Clearly, deeply undercut canyon walls occasionally collapse, depositing the sandstone and conglomerate cap rock onto the canyon floor. The canyon floor is often littered with cobbles of rock gypsum, which also indicates that while the canyon experiences episodes of erosive stream flow, the normal environment is arid enough to preserve the rock gypsum float.
 +
 +
We continued walking down-canyon to Waypoint 84 (4250879N - 520427E; elevation 1343m or 4406ft) where we observed a distinct boundary between red (oxidized, or deposited in an aerobic environment) siltstone, green (reduced, or deposited in an anaerobic environment) very fine-grained sandstone or siltstone, both overlying a massive, rock gypsum layer approximately 1m thick. The siltstones have common gypsum veining, with generally less than 1cm-thick veins oriented predominately parallel to bedding. This site is interesting for the abrupt transition (depositional?) between the siltstone types. It is interesting to note that these kinds of markers (oxidized vs. reduced sediments) may aid field geologists recreating depositional environments on Mars.
 +
 +
As we continued to walk down-stream encountered an "oasis" with several trees (possibly dormant) and green plants growing on the canyon floor. We took this as an indication that there may be water flowing along the main channel, below the sandy surface. This may be a good place to look for water flowing in subsurface channels.
 +
 +
Our southern-most waypoint is Waypoint 85, located at 4250876N – 520757E. At this site, we documented red siltstone beds with occasional, thin (less than 5cm thick) green siltstone interbeds. The red siltstone has laterally discontinuous depositions of massive, rock gypsum. The siltstone beds also have bedding-parallel gypsum veins, generally less than 2cm thick.
 +
 +
Looking down-canyon from Waypoint 85, one can see excellent exposures of the Summerville Formation marine sedimentary rocks. The nearly vertical canyon walls are 18m to 24m high, with the total topographic relief between the canyon floor and rim reaching nearly 35m.
 +
 +
''Sybil Sharvelle rests her hand on thick (0.4m to 1.5m) gypsum layer visible in the upper-part of Candor Chasma.''
 +
 +
''Sybil Sharvelle stands just below a massive sandstone channel exposed in the canyon wall near the tope of the Summerville Formation (marine siltstones) in Candor Chasma.''
 +
 +
''Sybil kneels in front of an undercut section of the canyon wall, with well-preserved ripple marks at the base of the canyon wall at Waypoint 83; the undercut is approximately 1.5m to 2.m deep.''
 +
 +
''Photograph of the distinct, sharp contacts between red mudstone bed, green-gray very fine-grained sandstone or siltstone bed and a 1m-thick rock gypsum layer exposed in the Candor Chasma canyon wall at Waypoint 83. Divisions on the scale are 10cm.''
 +
 +
''Sybil stands on a debris apron approximately 10m above the floor of the main channel of Candor Chasma. In the background are the excellent exposures of the marine sediments of the Summerville Formation on the 24m-tall cliffs in the background. This photo is from the middle reaches of the main canyon, looking northward.''
 +
 +
=March 22, 2002=
 +
==Engineering Report==
 +
<blockquote>Jonathan Dory & Sybil Sharvelle Reporting</blockquote><blockquote>'''Water Systems:''' The internal water tank has been filled to maximum. Because the external tank was nearly empty, we decided it would be best to pump as much water to the internal tank as possible, and then pour out the excess from the external tank, assuming that any contaminants would likely have settled to the bottom of the external tank. Unfortunately, in attempting to overfill the internal tank, some water overflowed and leaked down the outer shell of the hab through stateroom 5 on the upper deck and the washroom on the first level. It is estimated that the total spilt water was between 5-10 liters. The water was quickly cleaned up and is unlikely that there was any permanent damage to sheetrock or other structure as water quickly evaporates in the arid climate of MDRS.</blockquote><blockquote>'''Power and Fuel:''' The small fuel tanks were filled using the hand pump today. The large drums were filled by Lamont yesterday, so there is plenty of fuel to get crew 4 through at least the first week of their rotation.</blockquote><blockquote>'''EVA Equipment (including ATVs):''' The standard transmission ATV that needed its spark plug scraped earlier in the week is burning oil. It is recommended that all ATVs, that one in particular, have their oil checked before each EVA. There are several quarts of oil for the ATVs currently located in the main airlock.</blockquote><blockquote>'''Safety:''' Nothing to report.</blockquote><blockquote>'''Computers and Communications:''' Normal operation.</blockquote><blockquote>'''General Maintenance & Waste Management:''' It appears that the Biolet is getting very full and may be reaching capacity. It is difficult to know at this point if this will become a problem, though the device is reportedly designed to support a family of four through nominal use for six months. It may be that the addition of compost material earlier in the week accounts for the additional volume. Too, the aerobic/anaerobic bacteria that degrade the material may not yet have had the opportunity to become fully activated. The heater on the Biolet has been turned to maximum to activate them as much as possible, and it is recommended that later crew turn down heater if and when the level of material begins to decline.</blockquote><blockquote>The trash has been bagged and placed in the materials staging area as proposed in the MDRS manual prepared by Crew 2. There are a number of bags accumulating there, and it is recommended that Lamont pick this up on his next visit to avoid an over-accumulation.</blockquote><blockquote>'''Greenhouse:''' As has been previously reported, much damage occurred to the hab greenhouse during the windstorm that occurred last week. Information was requested from the GreenHab group regarding measurements of the door opening. The length of the door could not be accurately measured due to buckling of the greenhousewall (Fig. 1).</blockquote><blockquote>The width of the door is 98”. The old door was measured as 98.25” x 61.5”. Also, there is a patch above the door, spanning 18.5” above the top of the door opening. Many repairs need to be made aside from replacement of the door. The structure has collapsed in many areas creating gaps between the walls (Figure 2). The stake system that was originally intact did not work to keep the structure from moving around in the high winds. The buckets that these stakes were placed in have been forced out of the ground (Fig. 3).</blockquote><blockquote>Crew 3 retied the knots on the other stakes located around the greenhouse structure. If the greenhouse will be used during this field season, a more reliable staking system should be put in place to ensure that the structure is not damaged in high winds again. Additionally, there is a problem with the design of the greenhouse beds. They were designed so that the water should flow out of the system between the two beds on each side. However, sagging occurs in the beds, and water collects in the middle of each bed rather than flowing to the middle of the two beds (Figure 4). Other drainage alternatives, providing outflow from the sagging regions, should be considered.</blockquote>
 +
 +
==Two Recipes==
 +
'''SPECK!''' (Feeds 6 adventure-weary space rangers)
 +
 +
* 1/2 lb. Bacon
 +
* half an onion
 +
* 2 tsp black pepper
 +
* 5 cloves garlic, minced
 +
* 1/2 tsp paprika
 +
* 1 tsp dried basil
 +
* 1/2 tsp dried oregano
 +
* 1 large jar tomato sauce
 +
* 1 can peas
 +
* 1 and a half bags egg noodles
 +
* Fresh basil from the greenhouse
 +
 +
Cook bacon until crispy, then remove from pan. Discard half the bacon grease, then sauté the onions in the remainder ''(we know, we know. But we're on Mars, for crying out loud)''. Add pepper, garlic, paprika, dried basil, oregano and sauté until onions are soft. Add tomato sauce and peas, then shred fresh basil leaves, add, and warm through. Prepare the egg noodles. Combine sauce and noodles, add a bit more fresh basil, and serve.
 +
 +
'''Jonathan and Bjöern's Birthday Apple Bonanza'''
 +
 +
* 5 to 6 medium apples (whatever type you have on hand), peeled, cored and quartered
 +
* half cup (1 stick) butter, cubed
 +
* half cup sugar
 +
* half to 1 cup maple syrup (more syrup means more juice!)
 +
* 1 to 2 tablespoons cinnamon
 +
* pinch salt
 +
* approximately 2 cups graham crakers, coarsely crumbled
 +
 +
Layer quartered apples in crockpot. Dot with cubed butter, then sprinkle with sugar and pinch salt. Pour syrup over the layers, then sprinkle the cinnamon over the top. Cook on high two hours, then on low until apples are soft but not limp. Serve apples onto plates or into bowls, then finish with a topping of crisp graham crakers. Makes a welcome desert when the chocolate has finally run out... a real bonanza!
 +
 +
=March 23, 2002=
 +
 +
== Final Log Report ==
 +
<blockquote>Björn Grieger Reporting</blockquote><blockquote>Time 2002.0322.0700</blockquote><blockquote>We, Crew3, began our Mars Desert Reserach Station rotation with a baptism by fire! But we feel our success clearly demonstrates that the right team of individuals can be successful in reaching their goals, even while operating in an extreme enviroment far from logistical support. We believe these things highlight what makes Crew3 unique:</blockquote><blockquote>'''BJÖERN GRIEGER, COMMANDER, PLANETARY SCIENTIST'''</blockquote><blockquote>My name is Björn Grieger; I am a physicist and work at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Germany in the Planetary Science Department. The main topic of my work is the preparation of data evaluation for the Huygens probe, that will descent into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January 2005. Besides this, I am also involved in modeling long term climate changes on Mars.</blockquote><blockquote>Being born in 1961, I was very impressed when I saw Neil Armstrong walking on the moon in 1969, and my childhood dream was to become an astronaut. It has not completely become true, but I really appreciate how much I am involved in space exploration considering my work on planetary research, a cosmonaut training I obtained in Star City, Moscow, in 1997, and, of course, being at the Mars Desert Research Station in 2002. Having experienced how demanding it can be, I not sure if I really would like to be an astronaut myself, but I am pleased that I can contribute to the Mars Society's effort to pace mankind's way to space.</blockquote><blockquote>'''NELL BEEDLE, GEOLOGIST.'''</blockquote><blockquote>I'm very impressed that our crew, with our diverse backgrounds and experiences, were able to pull together as a team so that we could solve any problem, and have a great time doing it! As a field scientist, I was reminded that I've trained to use all five-senses while doing field work. Clearly, humans will have to make adjustments when exploring Mars where we can't expose ourselves to the hostile environment. I think the work at MDRS will contribute to developing new techniques for successful human exploration of Mars. But the real joy will be in walking up to a rock that has been remotely, digitally mapped at very high resolution from Earth, and simply picking it up and turning it over to see what's underneath!</blockquote><blockquote>'''ERIK CARLSTROM, GEOPHYSICIST'''</blockquote><blockquote>I have done planetary science, optical oceanography, and geophysical research and spent a short stint in the military. I feel that I have never gotten along with a group of people this size so quickly before in my life. I feel that we all have strong personalities and opinions, but we have amazingly been able to mesh these into a coherent working group. Our diverse backgrounds have allowed us to come even closer together than I thought was possible. I feel that I have bonded with my fellow crewmembers to the point that I have found new people that will be my friends for a long time to come. I think that this experience is important in the endeavor to send humans to Mars, because it tells me that the right crew can go through hardship and problems together yet stay close during the duration of the mission.</blockquote><blockquote>'''JONATHAN DORY, SPACE HABITATION ENGINEER'''</blockquote><blockquote>I work as a Human Factors Analyst for SPACEHAB Inc. at the Johnson Space Center. I support NASA by planning the internal layout and configuration of systems, payloads, and hardware to accommodate operations and habitability onboard the International Space Station. Naturally, my interest in the MDRS program has been to better understand how humans live and work in an enclosed volume with specific objectives; how do people share one small habitat in which they must perform science, prepare meals, sleep, and perform all of the routines of daily life? One of the greatest lessons that I'll take out of this program is how important it is to prepare for a mission as complex as a long duration stay on Mars in an integrated fashion like at MDRS. It is not enough to simply study humans in enclosed environments, performing field science, or operating payloads. The difficulty comes in determining the conflicts between these operations in the real working environment. While humans can adapt to just about any environment for a short period, it is critical that a long duration space habitat be designed to accommodate the needs of the crew, both for morale and productivity.</blockquote><blockquote>'''SYBIL SHARVELLE, GRADUTE STUDENT, CIVIL ENGINEERING, CU BOULDER'''</blockquote><blockquote>As I sat in the "living room" of the hab, trying to recollect my thoughts to write this summary, I found it difficult to concentrate because I was too busy enjoying my time with my crewmates. I went into my stateroom to get some privacy and concentrate and the first thing I remembered was the skepticism I had about coming here. Living in an enclosed environment with 5 other people in the middle of Nowhere, Utah, did not exactly sound fun. I could not have been more wrong. Not only has this been the most fun experience I've had in the last year, but also the most valuable. This environment has worked very well for a Mars simulation, both in the sense of a living environment and a physical environment that looks and feels alien and like Mars. The most important and rewarding part of this experience is having worked with an extremely diverse and multidisciplinary group of people to put all of our knowledge together for the goal of understanding and overcoming the hurdles it will take to send humans to Mars.</blockquote><blockquote>'''TIFFANY VORA - GRADUATE STUDENT, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.'''</blockquote><blockquote>I will always carry the memory of cresting Hab Ridge on pedestrian EVA with a media crew. I shuffled up the hill, keeping a sharp eye on my path for sinkholes. The path leveled out, I lifted my eyes ... and gazed across an expanse of mounds stretching to the horizon. My companions vanished; I was transported to the top of a grand desolate world. I surveyed the red and purple hills to the whir of my pack fan. This was not my home, my Earth; this was Mars, a land to explore, understand, and perhaps even shape to our needs. Suddenly I was aware of my companions, and my vision of Mars vanished. I was once again a member of a team, one of many who share a dream. I have journeyed far and still have far to go. We all do. But our feet are on the path, and with perseverance, vision, and yes, fun, we will succeed in our lifetimes. There will be humans on Mars, and we will have contributed to the triumph.</blockquote><blockquote>'''STACY SKLAR, GEOCHEMIST'''</blockquote><blockquote>I am a geochemistry student currently attending NAU (Northern Arizona University) and aspire to be a Mars Vulcanologist. I am active with the Mars Desert Research Station with Logistics, Exploration, and Research. In my spare time I am an avid outdoorswomen. My experience at the MDRS was incredible, learning about the geological processes occurring in this area and imaging that these processes could possible occur on Mars as well as in simulation was the next best thing to actually being on Mars! However, it was the Human Factors issue that leaves the best impression on me. The bonding that occurred between my crewmembers and myself was remarkable. Within a day of meeting each other we realized that in order not only to do basic fieldwork but for survival as well, we must work as a team. Due to a rather unexpected wind storm damage to the hab as well as our generator tripping on/off several times we learned to "work the problem" and most of all laugh about the situation.</blockquote>
 +
 +
== Final Biology Report ==
 +
<blockquote>Tiffany Vora Reporting</blockquote><blockquote>This document is a summary of the research I've conducted during the third crew rotation of the Mars Desert Research Station. While at MDRS, I experimented with culturing techniques, fluorescent staining, Gram staining, wet mounts, and stereoscopic microscopy. I will conclude with my observations and suggestions for biological research both here at MDRS and on an actual manned Mars mission.</blockquote><blockquote>My research goals were as follows:</blockquote><blockquote>The biology lab at MDRS now has culturing capabilities, largely due to the donation of an incubator to the Mars Society by the good folks at Princeton. The incubator is in cabinet form with two racks - shaking is not possible with the incubator in its present form. It holds temperature satisfactorily, and I believe it could be set as high as 45 or 50 degrees C. I used a temperature of 32-37 degrees C for all my culturing work based on my experience with E. coli. Higher temperatures are not advisable for several reasons, including the fact that agar plates would melt at temperatures higher than 50 degrees C. Basic culturing materials are present - "sterile" water (see below), yeast extract, salt (not chemistry or molecular biology grade, but food grade), inoculating loops, pipets and tips. There is no agar to pour plates, nor petri dishes, but until the sterility problem is addressed, I don't believe that full-scale media preparation is viable. A small number of parafilmed plates can be found in the lab refrigerator. Those labeled "LB" are the standard Luria Broth plates used for basic culturing. Those plates labeled "HS" are the high-salt plates prepared according to the DSM97 Halobacterial Media recipe (can be found in the "Biology Literature" file in the bio lab). The balance is probably in need of calibration, but I have been using it to create at least relative salt gradients for 1 mL liquid cultures. I have included an article on the cultivation of Halophilic Archaea in the "Biology Literature" file in the bio lab.</blockquote><blockquote>I found myself concentrating on the culturing of putative halophiles due to the presence of contaminating Gram-positive bacteria in low salt cultures. I am confident these microbes are contamination because they grew in my standard negative controls. However, a salt concentration of 0.5M is sufficient to eliminate the contamination (see Table 1). I used turbidity as a marker of growth with some reservation, as high salt concentrations contributed to turbidity. I was unable to determine the previous crews' criteria for microbial growth - it seemed that samples were labeled "Halophilic" based on the presence of salt rather than on the confirmed presence of bacterial life. If I use the ability to create a high-salt viable culture as my criterion for presence of halophiles, I am reluctant to positively identify any sampling locations as definitive environments for halophilic communities. However, I believe several locations have potential, and I recommend maintaining some cultures in the incubator for longer periods of time to give the cells a chance to grow. These cultures are marked with ** in Table 1 and are presently in the incubator. Once the cultures are established, they can be frozen and transported to full-scale laboratories for further analysis, such as basic molecular characterization based on the 16S ribosomal subunit.</blockquote>
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|Sample
 +
|Date
 +
|[NaCl] (Molar)
 +
|Growth?
 +
|-
 +
|Gypsum Alone
 +
|12-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**Green Gypsum
 +
|12-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|Possible  cells
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA27:Hypolith
 +
|13-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA30A:3
 +
|15-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|Turbid  - cells?
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA30A:10
 +
|15-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|0
 +
|Yes
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|0.5
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|1
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|2
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|3
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|4
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|Negative Control
 +
|17-Mar
 +
|4.5
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA34:1
 +
|18-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA34:2
 +
|18-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA34:3
 +
|18-Mar
 +
|4.27
 +
|Turbid,  prob. Not cells
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:1
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|1
 +
|Turbid  - cells?
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:1
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|2
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:1
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|3
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:1
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:1
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4.5
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:2
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|1
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:2
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|2
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:2
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|3
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:2
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:2
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4.5
 +
|Lt.  Turbid, possibly cell.
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:3
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|0.5
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:3
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|1
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:3
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|2
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:3
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|3
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:3
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4
 +
|Turbid,  prob. Not cells
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:3
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4.5
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:4
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|1
 +
|Turbid,  prob. Not cells
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:4
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|2
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:4
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|3
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|EVA40:4
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4
 +
|No
 +
|-
 +
|**EVA40:4
 +
|20-Mar
 +
|4.5
 +
|Turbid,  prob. Not cells
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="4" |Table 1. A partial  summary of culture attempts as of 3/23/02.
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="4" |** Culture has been retained for longer-term  incubation.
 +
|}
 +
<blockquote>My second research goal for this rotation was to establish a protocol for basic live/dead counts in samples collected from the field. My protocol was designed in conjunction with Dr. James Hall at Princeton University based on the principles of the Molecular Probes Live/Dead Viability Kits (product information in the "Biology Literature" file). On March 12, I performed a live cell assay using a combination of Syto9 and propidium iodide. Both of these chemicals are fluorescent and specifically stain double-stranded DNA. However, the staining properties differ in the types of cells that can be stained. Syto-9 must be actively taken up by the cell and thus only live cells will fluoresce green. Propidium iodide, on the other hand, can only enter the cell via damaged regions of the outer membrane/cell wall; dead cells should pick up the propidium iodide and fluoresce red. This analysis is difficult under hab bio lab conditions for several reasons. First, the downstairs windows are not sealed and it is impossible to obscure all background light (to prevent bleaching of the fluorophore). Second, even if the analyses are performed at night (as on 3/18), light from upstairs falls directly on the fluorescent microscope. Third, using the digital camera to shoot through the ocular of the microscope does not produce images that can be analyzed. Fourth, there is no "bio freezer," so storage of the fluorophores at the recommended temperature is just about impossible. It is my recommendation that sensitive fluorescence assays be postponed until the bio lab windows can be sealed and darkened and a separator (possibly temporary) can be erected to block off the lab portion from the upstairs portion of the hab (primarily for light pollution).</blockquote><blockquote>Gram-staining is an excellent technique for visualization and primary characterization of microbial life. We currently have the reagents and protocols necessary to perform quality Gram stains. The presence of Gram-positive contamination is worrisome but will not be prohibitive once sterilization techniques are developed (see below).</blockquote><blockquote>Wet mounts are useful for visualizing cells in an undisrupted state. On March 18 I observed cells that appeared to be motile in excess of Brownian motion. A higher-magnification objective would be useful for these analyses. Currently the 100x objective is the highest magnification available, but as there is room in the scope for another objective, I have hope for future donations.</blockquote><blockquote>Stereoscopic microscopy has limited usefulness for microbial studies. I used the stereoscope to examine salt structures and rock surfaces for porosity that could have been caused by microbes. I also used the stereoscope for the gross anatomical study that I did on the "Martian" plant - the Desert Trumpet (3/15/02). I do believe that the stereoscope is a good addition to the hab's laboratory, as it can be utilized by both biologists and geologists for gross sample studies. Observations and Conclusions</blockquote><blockquote>The biology lab at MDRS is suitable for basic field microbiological and gross-specimen analyses. However, there are some major areas that could be improved, both for MDRS and for actual manned Mars missions.</blockquote>1.Contamination. I cannot overemphasize the need for sterilization procedures for sampling, hab egress/ingress, and laboratory analysis.
 +
 +
a) Cross-contamination in the field while sampling. If the samples are not kept "sterile" - that is, not lifeless but containing only the life endogenous to that particular sample - then subsequent sterilization techniques are worthless and conclusions about life in individual sites are invalid. I felt it was unsafe to flame my tools while in the spacesuit; perhaps      some kind of radiation-sterilization device can be developed for field work both here and on Mars (it would have to be small, with very large buttons).
 +
 +
b) Contamination of the hab and/or the outside environment during hab egress/ingress. I feel it would be extremely irresponsible to design research missions that lack a way to sterilize field suits and tools (but not samples, otherwise biotic material would be destroyed) during egress and ingress. Science-fiction writers have had a fascination with the possibility of endogenous pathogens having a severe effect on a crew. While this is certainly a serious concern, we must also ensure that no Earth organisms have any chance of being loosed in the Martian environment. Until we have had thorough opportunity to examine Mars in its native state (I picture several hundred years), contaminating Mars is as severe an issue as contaminating the Hab or the Earth itself.
 +
 +
c) Contamination of the hab and crew during laboratory analysis. Putative biological samples must be kept alive during the procedure that sterilizes the suits and tools used on EVA. However, once the samples are in the laboratory, every precaution must be taken to ensure that organisms are not disseminated throughout the hab. Simple precautions, such as hand-washing, not taking samples out of the lab, a closed air circuit, and a way of sealing off the lab will go a long way toward tackling this problem.
 +
 +
d) Contamination of samples during laboratory analysis. I struggled with contamination during my rotation, so I advocate adding equipment to the lab to deal with this problem. An autoclave seems an improbable addition, as they are large, heavy, expensive, and require a good deal of water and power. However, they cannot be beat for thoroughness of sterilization. An autoclave on-site would allow recycling of tools and minimize the amount of materials such as media that currently have to be brought in. A biosafety cabinet or glove box would be useful to minimize contamination originating with the researcher; it would also protect the researcher during the manipulation of samples.
 +
 +
2.Sample storage. Our current "method" of storing samples is inadequate for thorough laboratory analyses. A freezer devoted entirely to biological samples must be provided before coherent sample storage can be attempted. Furthermore, this freezer must consistently hold a temperature of at least -20 degrees C, even during power failure, while a steady of temperature of -80 degrees C would be optimal. No coherent system of naming and storing samples exists. My experience has been that I hardly have adequate time to analyze my own samples, let alone the samples that have been piled up in the refrigerator. Any samples stored should have documentation citing exactly what analyses have been performed (including protocols) and what analyses are recommended for future researches (again, including protocols). I believe that any samples obtained by the researcher should be taken home by the researcher for further analysis, unless transport would destroy the sample. I intend to leave a few cultures for further growth, since I cannot keep them warm during transport and I cannot freeze them and keep them frozen. These tubes are clearly labeled and have been described elsewhere in this report.
 +
 +
   3.Scientific continuity. Communication among the biologists of all crews is necessary to create a consistent research plan,
 +
 +
     and to avoid "junking" of samples that should be saved. During the planning of real manned Mars missions, I envision
 +
 +
     that members of all crews intimately know each other and have plenty of opportunity to devise research plans. Please see
 +
 +
     the Crew 3 Evaluation for a thorough discussion of this point. I have been in communication with the Crew 4 biologist, and
 +
 +
     I hope I have prepared her somewhat for the state of the lab. I also intend to leave a letter to the Crew 4 biologist, with a
 +
 +
     quick guide to the lab and the name of this file so she can read my conclusions.
 +
 +
   4.Future equipment acquisitions. Elsewhere in this document I have recommended the acquisition of an autoclave,
 +
 +
     biosafety cabinet/glove box, sterilization tools, additional microscope objectives, microscope-specific digital cameras, and
 +
 +
     a way of sealing off the bio lab. Previous crews have recommended obtaining a gel box, DNA/RNA/protein kits, etc, for
 +
 +
     DNA studies. I disagree; until excellent sterilization procedures have been developed, I don't believe that molecular
 +
 +
     studies can be carried out with any confidence. This is one reason I believe researchers should take their samples home. A
 +
 +
     field lab is not designed to do in-depth studies, and I imagine that Mars scientists will not be carrying out molecular
 +
 +
     studies while on Mars. I expect that Martian samples would be brought back to Earth and handed over to the researcher(s)
 +
 +
     best prepared to analyze them in terms of experience, equipment, funding and manpower. Why send your best scientists
 +
 +
     to Mars, when the best scientists can be at home for support and eventual analysis? Here at MDRS, we need
 +
 +
     reagent-grade salt and other chemicals, including media components. We could also use a way to dispose of chemicals
 +
 +
     and biohazardous materials in a responsible fashion.<blockquote>The Mars Desert Research Station has the potential to produce some quality biological samples. With development of techniques for sterilization and analysis, and coherent methods of reporting on and storing samples, I am confident that the Mars Society can attract the attention and sponsorship of biologists around the world. Quality biology can be accomplished in the future with just a little effort on our parts now.</blockquote>

Latest revision as of 14:59, 5 November 2019

March 11, 2002

EVA Summary Report

Log Book for March 11, 2002

EVA- Operations Log

Stacy Sklar *EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

Today’s EVA 27 primary object was to obtain samples from White Rock Canyon hypolithic organisms for biologist to culture. EVA 27 also interacted with camera crews.

DATE: 03-11-02

EVA Scenerio White Rock Canyon
EVA HAB COMM (s) ?
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Sklar/3 Beedle/2 Vora/6
EVA START TIME (PET): 12:21 EVA STOP TIME: 14:21 Scheduled/Actual 14:54

*EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Today we collected potential hypolithic samples from White Rock Canyon. We were only able to obtain two samples from this area both lightly cemented medium to coarse-grained sandstone from Morrison Formation. We did not see any ice formations in this area. However, the ground was wet. EVA started off slow due to ATV and comm problems. This EVA was also to familiarize the crew with sim conditions and use of equipment within these conditions.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation for first EVA for crew.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION
REPORTED STATUS
Auxiliary Information

TEXT:

No monitoring due to no contact from EVA team. Both EVA and Hab teams continued with radio check with no success.

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

EVA25:

Nominal ingress and cleanup.

EVA26:

Nominal ingress and cleanup

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: The first EVA team of all women did very well! Girl Power! EVA during mid-day uncomfortably warm resulting in perspiration by all members. Handling equipment in field was difficult and needed all members to document and obtain samples.

EVA MDRS1: Nothing to add

EVA MDRS2: Nothing to add

Engineering Report

Log Book for March 11, 2002

General Engineering Report

Jonathan Dory Reporting

Water Systems: Internal water tank last filled 10/10 before simulation operations began. Current water level at 5 gallons, but will be filled before sleep cycle tonight. Anomalously high water consumption due in part to the large number of people in the Hab today including media and mission support teams.

Power and Fuel: Fuel storage is VERY LOW. External tanks have been taped. Currently, 20 gallons of fuel remain in small fuel containers. Lamont must deliver fuel in the next 24 hours.

EVA Equipment (including ATVs): Two check-out EVA’s took place today, each utilizing ATV’s. Tire pressures were measured and all low tires were filled to recommended operating pressure. Some problems were encountered with ATV’s including problems starting and frequent stalling of one ATV and some steering imbalance of another. These issues did not preclude successful EVA operations but deserve future attebntion.

Safety: A minor fall took place on the stairs today due to a slip and resulted in bruising. Adhesive-backed grip paper is requested to reduce slipping potential on the stairs, which are nearly always accessed in socks or smooth bottom slippers.

Hazmat documents have been collected for all new hazardous laboratory chemicals. Search continues for previously collected Hazmat documents.

Computers and Communications: There have been problems accessing the system server from LAN connection in state-room. Short-term work around is to telnet to known remote system (located in Germany) and to directly mail Mission Support as well as Hab server. Search for permanent solution in continues.

General Maintenance & Waste Management: Significant effort was dedicated to housekeeping today. Tools, laboratory materials, kitchen goods, and office supplies were sorted put away to clear work space, increase productivity, and contribute to overall cleanliness and crew moral. Old rock and soil samples that were not documented or labeled were collected and returned to the field on the assumption that studies of these sample are complete. Samples were placed in areas of the field that have been previously disturbed so that samples will not be confused for samples in their native state.

Biology Report

Log Book for March 11, 2002

Biology Report

Tiffany Vora Reporting

This morning’s EVA was primarily to familiarize ourselves with the suits, ATVs, and the surrounding areas. We were also shadowed by two television crews, both in and out of the hab.

Stacy, Nell, and I traveled to White Rock Canyon to attempt to duplicate samples of putative biological origin. The previous two crews have used diverse methods to label and preserve their samples, and thus I wished to have ‘fresh’ samples with which to work. We examined the north-south axis of the canyon to find regions of deep shade which could retain water for long periods of time. Although we found neither standing water nor the gypsum deposits we had hoped to find, we obtained two samples.

The first sample was taken from the underside of a medium-to-coarse grained sandstone that exhibited a small green crescent, possibly indicative of a microbial community. GPS coordinates (UTM) are 4247480N, 520361E. The light reading at the shady site was 4391.6712 ca m-2. We are suspicious of this number, as we were unfamiliar with the operation of the illuminance meter and had reduced mobility due to a large number of people in the canyon. Upon return to the hab, the sample was broken into smaller chips, added to ~1 mL DI sterile water, and vortexed to encourage any bacterial cells to leave the substrate. As an example of procedure to the camera crew, I dropped the supernatant onto a high salt (~4M NaCl) plate and placed it in the incubator (~37C). Although I do not have evidence to lead me to suspect the culture will be successful, I anticipate a pleasant surprise.

The second sample came from the underside of a very fine-grained sandstone in the wash section of the canyon. The site was cool and sandy and slightly damp. No light readings were taken – the sandstone itself was exposed to sunlight, but we sampled the underside. Once back in the hab, Nell and Stacy powdered the stone (again, as an example for the TV crew) and I created a slurry with the powder (~200 uL powder in ~1.4 mL DI sterile water). I vortexed the sample to liberate the cells, but I have not yet performed any microscopic studies on the sample.

I performed the necessary dilutions of stocks of propidium iodide and Styo9 in preparation for staining and microscopy. For propidium iodide: Approximately 0.007g PI into 50 mL DI sterile water, and 10 uL of this solution was brought up to 1 mL DI sterile water. For Syto9: 10 uL of the frozen stock solution (5 mM in DMSO) was brought up to 1 mL DI sterile water. Both solutions are being protected from light and the Syto is frozen.

Tomorrow I hope to begin preliminary staining of samples, including a positive control. I will perform a rough live/dead assay using the propidium iodide and Styo stains (more explanation to follow), and if possible, I will perform a Gram stain on the same samples.

March 11, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Status Report - MDRS March 12, 2002 Time 2002.0312.1925, Commander Bjeorn Grieger

Until today no XO had been announced. This morning I asked Nell if she would be ready to take over this duty, and she accepted my request.

After briefing, Stacey, Nell and I went off for an EVA at 1006. We were accompanied by the Spiegel-TV team. They appeared to be very interested and shot a lot. I agreed on several additional activities they requested us to do, like passing the camera on the ATVs several times, falling down on the groud while walking down a hill and getting up with the help of the other EVA team members etc. All in all this media work took about one hour of the EVA time. The scientific aspects of the EVA are described in the EVA report. The EVA team was back in the hab at 1241. Then Spiegel TV interviewed me in the common room until they left at 1500, The resultant feature should be on air in Spiegel TV on March 17. It is expected to be about 15 minutes long.

When the TV team was gone, the EVA team did the voice recording and started organizing and documenting the acquired data and downloading the pictures from the digital cameras. Unfortunately we still have not found any possibility to tranfer data from notebooks to the HabCom. Therefore we can not send pictures taken with my personal digital camera with the reports. And I can also not download it directly to the HabCom, because a USB connection is required.

While the EVA team was away, the others continued cleaning air locks and EVA prep room. The laboratory was further arranged and organized (material safety description sheets were found!) and laboraty work really started as described in the biology report.

We have not made plans for tomorrow. This will most probably happen during dinner.

Biology Report

Tiffany Vora

No biological samples were gathered in today’s EVA. I spent the day in the lab doing preliminary experiments, mostly to familiarize myself with protocols.

Gram staining was performed on several samples. A positive control was generated by incubating overnight a culture inoculated with my saliva. This positive control was used for all experiments noted in this report. I am attaching the image of the positive control with a 100x objective. The deep violet stain indicates the presence of gram positive cells. I was expecting to also see Gram negative cells (ie, E. coli), but they were not visualized in this first slide.

Nell provided me with two more samples by powdering different locations from the rocks from WP74 (2/17/02) labelled ‘gypsum crystal rock w/green endoliths – halophilic, endoliphic.’ One sample, referred to as ‘Gypsum alone,’ was taken from an interior, unweathered section of the gypsum rock. The second sample, ‘Gypsum + Green,’ included a region of green growth (akin to what was sampled on yesterday’s EVA) and gypsum. The green growth was present at the interface between the gypsum and the sandstone. Both samples were Gram stained. Dark violet (Gram positive) and fuschia (Gram negative) regions were both observed; however, I suspect much nonspecific staining, perhaps caused by insufficient wash steps. I would like more time to familiarize myself with this specific protocol and the microscope before attempting to draw definitive conclusions from the images. I am attaching an image taken with the 40x objective of the ‘gypsum alone.’

I stained a positive control aliquot with Syto-9 and propidium iodide. Both of these chemicals are fluorescent and specifically stain double-stranded DNA. However, the staining properties differ in the types of cells that can be stained. Syto-9 must be actively taken up by the cell and thus only live cells will fluoresce green. Propidium iodide, on the other hand, can only enter the cell via damaged regions of the outer membrane/cell wall; dead cells should pick up the propidium iodide and fluoresce red.

Finally, I inoculated four 1 mL cultures and set them in the incubator at 37 degrees C. The four cultures are:

Green gypsum sample in water + yeast extract Green gypsum sample, water, yeast extract, + 0.25g NaCl (table salt, not reagent grade) Gypsum alone, water, yeast extract Gypsum alone, water, yeast extract, + 0.25g NaCl (as above) I a m a t t a c h i n g a ‘b e f o r e ’ p h o t o o f t h e c u l t u r e s t o b e a b l e t o c o m p a r e t h e t u r b i d i t y o f t h e c u l t u r e s l a t e r . U s u a l l y c e l l g r o w t h i n c u l t u r e i s d e t e r m i n e d b y m e a s u r i n g t h e o p t i c a l d e n s i t y o f t h e s a m p l e . H e r e a t t h e h a b , I w i l l b e u s i n g c l o u d i n e s s a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f g r o w t h . I w i l l m o n i t o r t h e f o u r t u b e s o v e r t h e n e x t f e w d a y s t o a s s a y f o r g r o w t h .

T o m o r r o w I h o p e t o e x p e r i m e n t m o r e w i t h t h e D N A s t a i n s a n d t o b e c o m e m o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e f l u o r e s c e n t m i c r o s c o p e . I h a v e m a n y s a m p l e s i n t h e f r i d g e t o w o r k w i t h , a l o n g w i t h a n y n e w s a m p l e s o b t a i n e d b y t h i s c r e w o n E V A .

Geology Report

Nell Beedle, Stacy Sklar

We visited an area approximately 1km south of Barsoom outcrops. Our main objective was to obtain elevation points while traversing the slope of a hill (steep incline). The elevation gain from 13 data points, which include UTM coordinates and elevation levels, is approximately 50m.

One sample was taken from this site (EVA 29-WP 78-1.0). The sample is Cretaceous cemented sandstone conglomerate from a high-energy depositional environment. (See Figure One).

We continue to work in the lab sorting and organizing geologic samples. We have found many interesting rocks without documentation (for example, no sample number or other label to indicate the scientific importance of the sample). We’ve removed many of these samples from the lab.

We were particularly concerned about the total weight of the rock (hand specimen) samples stored in the hanging cabinetry, and the potential damage to the cabinetry. We are in the process of packing/archiving the samples in large plastic ‘painters’ buckets with lids, and with labels to indicate the contents of the buckets. Until suitable longer-term storage is available, the buckets will be stacked near the rear (secondary) air lock. The buckets shouldn’t be stacked too high to avoid the danger of the falling over.

Rock powders (for future analytic study) have been stored in a labeled cabinet, in glass tubes. Note that we found many unlabeled/undocumented tubes and sealed bags of rock powder. These were also removed from the laboratory.

  • We suggest that in the future, workers carefully consider the importance and relevance of samples before archiving them in the limited HAB storage space. We propose a digital geo sample archival system with the following features:
  • Each sample should be labeled with at least the EVA number, Waypoint number and sample number in order to more efficiently cross-reference geo samples with EVA reports and photos. For example (See Figure One), EVA29-WP78-1.0 would be from EVA number 29, Waypoint number 78, and sample number 1.0.

A running sample log should be generated, with each sample number, (EVA number, Waypoint number, sample number), waypoint coordinates, elevation of sample (if relevant), detailed description of sample, and a digital photograph(s) of the sample. The hope is that in the future, these data will become part of a GIS-mapping effort to detail the geology around the HAB. Finally, the lab has a designated work area for ‘rock’ work, which includes a waste rock/powder/soil container that can be periodically emptied (see references from log of EVA 28).

March 13, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Commander's Report Björn Grieger Reporting Today, we had no EVA. A lot of problems due to the strong wind had to be dealt with. Nevertheless, the interaction with the BBC radio team was very successful. See the details below.

Time 2002.0313.0755

We have searched for an leak in the water system. Over night, without any water use by us, 10 gallons have gone. Checking all hoses we could easily access, we found nothing. Reported that to Frank Schubert.

Time 2002.0313.0840

Wind speed peaks at 48 km/h, taking flag down.

Time 2002.0313.1000

Going outside to take a group photo as requested by mission support. Off sim, wearing suits but no helmets and backpacks.

Time 2002.0313.1030

BBC Radio team arrives. They help with taking photos of the complete group. Then we all go back in the hab and the BBC team starts interviewing all of us in turn.

Time 2002.0313.1130

The strong wind tends to open the outer door of the back air lock. We tie it.

Time 2002.0313.1230

Wind peaks at 76 km/h

Time 2002.0313.1245

Wind peaks at 80 km/h. We decide to refrain from an EVA today until the wind speed decreases conciderably.

Time 2002.0313.1255

Wind peaks at 93 km/h.

Time 2002.0313.1257

Lost power. Generator had stopped. We went out (off sim) and found the white cable detached and the noise wall laying down and the ground. We checked oil on the generator (which was pretty low), refilled it, reconnected the white cable and restarted the generator. Also reerected the noisewall and stabilized it with the fuel tons. This is only a temporary solution, since the fuel tons are too close to the generator. Started working on a more elaborated contruction to support the noise wall.

We also found the part of the greenhouse comprising the door almost torn off. We detached it completely and supported the greenhouse additionally with some ropes.

Time 2002.0313.1445

BBC team left. We will be on air 2002.0407.

Time 2002.0313.1525

Water level is about 5 gallons. Going to refill.

Time 2002.0313.1615

Completed refill to 59 gallons, i.e. added 54 gallons. By the way fixed some floor isolation material that was hanging down at the southwest side of the hab. Not a permanent solution, but looks much better than before.

Time 2002.0313.1630

Noticed that it is a little cold in the first floor, and that there's more dust than usual on the notebook keyboard. The reason turned up to be that the wind had blown the plexiglas window out of the frame in cabin 6. We fixed that and vacumed the cabin.

Time 2002.0313.1700

Finished new support construction for noise wall. Also fixed the greenhouse as good as possible, but it's in a bad condition; one of the anchors came out.

Time 2002.0313.1715

Power off, shortly after activating the water heater. Restarted the generator and postponed water heating until some laboratory work (which requires light) is done.

Started working on documenting today's damages.

Time 2002.0313.1915

Preparing dinner. More reports later.

Biology Report

I was very pleased to discover growth in two of my culture tubes this morning (see Fig. 1).

Figure 1

Fig.1. Culture tubes after an overnight incubation at 37 degrees C. From left to right: Gypsum alone*, Gysum alone + NaCl, Green Gypsum*, Green Gypsum + NaCl. *cloudiness indicative of growth.

Both the Gypsum Alone and Green Gypsum tubes cultured, suggesting that perhaps the presence of a green region is not an accurate indicator of microbial life. Contrary to my expectations, the microbes did not grow in a high salt medium. The medium was approximately 4.274M. The Green Gypsum culture exhibits slight turbidity, although I cannot rule out the possibility that I aspirated some rock powder when I inoculated the sample.

Figure 2

Fig. 2. The Gypsum Alone culture exhibits biofilm properties – note cloudy film on surface of media.

I also discovered a distinct biofilm in the Gypsum Alone culture which is absent from the Green Gympsum culture (see Fig. 2). Biofilm formation is relatively common among ‘wild’ strains of bacteria, while strains which have been ‘domesticated’ (used for many years in the laboratory) often lack this characteristic. At first approximation, it would seem that the ‘Green’ element precludes biofilm formation. However, I think this is unlikely; under the microscope, the ‘Green’ element appeared to be some form of precipitate or salt, rather than a distinct form of life. It is possible that the ‘Green’ element causes the differential behavior of the two cultures, although I am uncertain what the actual effect could be. Perhaps the ‘Green’ element is sensed by the bacteria as being an inappropriate environment for biofilm formation, possibly due to salt concentration. This is all conjecture, however.

I performed Gram stains of the ‘Gypsum Alone’ and ‘Green Gypsum’ cultures (see Fig. 1 for culture turbidity). The ‘Gypsum Alone’ culture exhibited a high degree of both crystal violet and safranin staining. Purple cells aggregating into chains were visualized, but the safranin (Gram negative) staining appeared to be concentrated on fibrous bodies that I suspect are particles that were blown around the lab during the windstorm.

The first objective of the ‘Green Gypsum’ stain was to ascertain the nature of the green material.

Figure 3

Fig. 3. The Green Material from ‘Green Gypsum’ viewed with 20x objective. The smaller, purple bodies are Gram positive bacteria.

Several attributes of Fig.3 lead me to believe that the green material is not cellular. First, the material is extremely large. Second, the material exists over several focal planes, indicating stacking of material. Most cells (cancer cells are a notable exception) have growth signals that prevent them growing on top of each other. Third, the material has irregular shape, and most cells have a regular morphology. I believe that the green material is mineral rather than cellular.

The second goal of the Green Gypsum Gram stain was to visualize the microbial material in the culture. Two interesting categories of aggregation, clumping (Fig. 4) and chaining (Fig. 5) were noticed.

Figure 4

Fig 4. Clumping of Gram + cells, Green Gypsum, 100x objective.

Figure 5

Fig. 5. Chains of Gram + cells, Green Gypsum, 100x objective.

I also attempted to stain the supernatant from powdered samples from EVA 27, the Wash Bottom sample and the Hypolith sample. Both stains were unsuccessful due to high background staining. However, I have inoculated both high salt and low salt cultures with the Hypolith sample.

Finally, examine the following image. Is it a high resolution image of the Red Planet, complete with a sunrise and glittering cities?

Mars?

This picture is actually a poor image taken of the Green Material at 20x. I include it to emphasize an important aspect of nature, an aspect which the crew has been discussing lately. For lack of a better term, a synergy of permutations exists in the universe; atoms, planets, and galaxies all exhibit an overall circular pattern. An eager mind can see the similarities between microscopic particles and our nearest planetary neighbor. I point this out to encourage everyone to notice the beauty and symmetry of nature and of the universe. Take a good look around. Open your mind. Beauty is all around us, and an active, inquiring mind will appreciate the pure elegance of our world.

March 14, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Commander's Report Björn Grieger Reporting After the power breakdown, we were not able to restart the generator last evening and spend the night without light (not at all needed, had some flash lights, nice atmosphere), heating (well, not absolutely necessary, but would have been appreciated), and comms (desperately desired; mission support must have assumed we were loosing pressure and spinning out of control ...). First thing this morning was to approach again the generator problem, and in the bright light of the day we found the very simple cause of the problem: After the breakdown, the idle control switch has been switched to "On", but this one must be at "Off" to let the generator work properly.

With the power supply restored, we resumed our explorations with two EVAs today. In EVA 30 starting in the morning we tried out a team of two members on feet (Stacey and Nell) and two members on ATVs (Tiff and Bjoern). EVA 31 starting immediately after the return of EVA 30 and was performed on ATVs by Erik and Jon. Both EVAs did not reach further than a few miles from Hab. They aimed at the investigation of interesting features we had noticed from the Hab. We only used two ATVs simultaneously today although the third one has been returned with the handbreak problem fixed.

While EVA 30 was underway, Jon worked on the water loss problem and most probably has found the location of the leakage (see his engineering report). Erik worked on the way point data base.

We had two groups of visitors today, three persons came in the morning with Lamont who were led around by Jon, and in the afternoon there was another group, one woman and five children, which were courtesly taken care of by Tiff.

We tried again the water heater, with ALL other devices apart from the HabCom switched off, also Fridges. Nevertheless, the power broke down after about 20 minutes, but the water was already warm enough to enable the first shower of the rotation for all crew members. This of course contributes to the good moral of the team, which however even persisted during the tough conditions of last night.

Engineering Report

'General Engineering Report' 'Jonathan Dory Reporting' 'Water Systems:' The water loss problem seems as though it may be identified due to some excellent trouble shooting from mission support. The reverse osmosis water filter in the hab wardroom area seems to have been leaking water directly through the drain to the leach field. The filter has been deactivated through this entire rotation because primary water is fresh from Hanksville. Despite the deactivated electric pump, the osmosis filter is pressurized by about 3 meters of gravitational head. This may have been enough to pump water through the system and cause the 16 to 20 gallon per day loss we have been noticing. The valve has since been closed off and we will check the water level over the next 24 hours to see if the problem is resolved.

'Power and Fuel:' The generator is up and running today and we are back to normal operations. After weathering the night without heat or lights and eating solar heated Pop Tarts for breakfast (they come wrapped in little space blankets), we got the generator started at day break and celebrated with hot coffee. We are all quite relieved as we are dedicated to not breaking sim. The generator does not seem to be providing enough power to run the water heater. The water heater has tripped the generator several times, even when all resistive heating elements, lights, refrigerators, and microwave are deactivated. Nonetheless, we all decided that we deserved showers after the events of the previous 24 hours and managed to get in six cold showers with less that 20 gallons of water.

'EVA Equipment (including ATVs):' The back left tire of the automatic transmission ATV appears to have a slow leak. It was filled at the beginning of this rotation and is already very low. The low pressure makes the ATV difficult to operate because it pulls heavily to the left. We need an air compressor and stop-leak for the tire.

'Safety:' None.

Hazmat documents have been collected for all new hazardous laboratory chemicals. Search continues for previously collected Hazmat documents.

'Computers and Communications:' Starband was causing some difficulties today, and transferring data intensive documents failed multiple times. Things seem to be back to normal now and communication with Mission Support is continuing as normal.

Though things have been rough over the last 24 hours, spirits have remained very high. We all know that it wonÕt always be roses on Mars and see all of our challenges in the Utah desert as valuable learning experiences. The only frustrating part has been that the power loss meant not being able to communicate the excitement and activity with Mission Support and all of our support out there on the web.

'General Maintenance & Waste Management:' None.

EVA 30 Report

EVA-30 Operations Log Bjoern Grieger

  • EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

Today’s EVA 30 had a scientific and an operational objective.

The scientific one was the investigation of boulder fields visible from the hab. We hoped to find rocks which are covered with dust, infer their color with dust cover and, after brushing away the dust, without it. This is important for spectral measurements from orbit. The change of reflectivity with dust cover also affects the atmospheric circulation and thus the climate. Another aim was to investigate how stable the positions of rocks are when the sand around them has been eroded and they are only supported by the sand column on which they reside. This had turned out an important issue for the sojourner Mars rover in order to avoid damage due to a falling over rock.

The operational objective was to investigate the benefits from having two teams at a time in a field, one walking and one using ATVs.

DATE: 03-14-02

EVA Scenerio Boulder fields 1 mile east of the hab
EVA HAB COMM (s) Erik
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Bjoern/1 Tiff/6 Nell/2 Stacey/3
EVA START TIME (PET): 12:16 EVA STOP TIME: 14:21 Scheduled/Actual 14:47
  • EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

It turned out that there is surprisingly little dust around, although we constantly have to fight it to prevent it from entering into the hab. All the rocks investigated were covered with almost no dust, i.e. brushing them thoroughly does not yield a visible color change.

Various rocks which were only supported by a sand column with the surrounding material eroded were investigated and pictures taken. All the investigated rocks rest very stable and could not have been brought off balance by a careful encounter with a small rover like Sojourner.

On cruise to the envisaged boulder fields, two areas exhibiting various very intens colors were discovered. Pictures have been taken of these. For color calibration, a red-green-blue test sheet was put in the field of view of the camera. The calibration sheet had been brought for color determination of dust covered boulders (which were not found). As red-green-blue color calibration sheet, a Martian flag was used.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation. A mirror for the leading ATV rider, watches attached to the suit and pencils to press tiny buttons are standard now.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 12:40 13:12 14:05
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION
REPORTED STATUS OK OK OK
Auxiliary Information Request coordinates

of waypoint 57 from

hab

Communicate

weather

warning

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

A vacuum clean was due for suits upon return.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: The fact of having two teams, one walking and one on ATVs, in the field did not exhibit considerable advantages for the exploration. However, to document the work of the walking team by taking photographs from various directions and distances, the ATVs are very useful.

EVA MDRS1: The major impediment in today’s EVA was our inability to navigate efficiently. We studied the contour map before leaving the hab, but while we were in the field, we were unable to accurately assess our position, even using the GPS. Perhaps a system of navigation centered on landmarks would be more practical on EVA than reliance on the GPS.

EVA MDRS2: We walked in support of the ATV EVA team, but quickly realized that walking long distances, ostensibly to make more detailed observations of the local terrain, was tiring and ineffective. However, we did some reconnaissance for potential measurable stratigraphic sections in the area. Other notes: it will shortly become necessary to either wear sunglasses under the clear plastic visors, or attach sun screens on the visors to be able to spend extended periods of time working in the bright Utah sunlight.

EVA MDRS3: Having fellow geologist in field to collaborate with was very helpful and many ideas were discussed. See geology report.

EVA 31 Report

Erik Carlstrom

  • EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

EVA 31 was done with the purpose to scout for a place and route to a measurable stratographic section. This is important to get a good idea of the local geology and to assist constructing a geological cross section of the area.

DATE: 03-14-02

EVA Scenerio Reconnaisance EVA
EVA HAB COMM (s) Tiffany
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Erik/4 Jon/5 N/a N/a
EVA START TIME (PET): 1550 EVA STOP TIME: 14:21 Scheduled/Actual 1800/1730
  • EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Some of the highlights of the EVA were some rather beautiful scenery and interesting geological formations. There were some visitors to the hab, so we allowed them to take pictures of us putting the flag back up (which was taken down and brought into the hab yesterday due to the high winds). In order to be ecologically sound, we would travel in the washes in order to have the least impact on the land. Several images were taken of formations that might be visited by the geologists. The ATV’s or one of us were used for scale in the images. The weather was quite cold (approx. 4 degrees C). It was windy, but nowhere near the magnitude of the previous day.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation was done. A mirror for the leading ATV rider, watches attached to the suit and pencils to press tiny buttons are standard now. Both EVA members were equipped similarly.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 1700
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION
REPORTED STATUS OK
Auxiliary Information Comm

had static

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

A vacuum clean was due for suits upon return.

EVA25: Nominal ingress and cleanup.

EVA26: Nominal ingress and cleanup

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: The Automatic ATV has tire pressure problems. The tire was pumped full of air on Monday, and is close to being flat now. It is imperative that an air compressor be accessible by the crew. That way we can deal with crew safety on EVA’s.

EVA MDRS1: Arm mirrors work great as rear view mirrors on ATV’s. These should be required gear on all ATV EVA’s, particularly off road. Also, a rather steep hill was climbed on foot in order to test it’s potential as a measurable stratographic section for later visit. The suit accommodated climbing quite well, and the air delivery fans provided sufficient air for the prolonged cardiovascular exercise.

March 15, 2002

MDRS Log Book - Björn Grieger

MDRS log, Commander Grieger

After power supply had been restored, yesterday was a "normal" day of exploration. In the evening we watched the movie "Outland", which takes place on Jupiter's moon Io. The movie is not quite brilliant, but at least to some extent "spacy". We retired to our cabins around midnight, and I did some private emailing before I went to bed. I again slept very well in the hab and awoke a few minutes before my alarm clock would have rung at 0730.

Time 2002.0315.0800

Breakfast with complete crew. Conversation moves smoothly from some chatting to the discussion of general geology issues and then to the briefing of today's EVA.

Time 2002.0315.0930

Preparing EVA. This has now become kind of routine.

Time 2002.0315.1030

EVA team (Nell, Stacey and Jon) departures.

Tiff works in Laboratory, Erik works on updating the way point data base and takes care of communication with EVA team. I try to get some data visualization software from the web.

Time 2002.0315.1315

EVA team returns. Only Jon comes back in (for a certain biological requirement that could not have been dealt with outside without breaking sim), Nell and Stacey continue the EVA.

After regression, Jon, Erik and me work on the greenhouse. One side of it is currently out of use. We think we can not fix it with our resources, see engineering report for details.

Time 2002.0315.1355

Rest of EVA team (Nell and Stacey) returns.

After regression, results of EVA are evaluted and discussed, also some results obtained in the laboratory by Tiff.

Time 2002.0315.1600

Laboratory work continues, also housekeeping tasks (water and fuel refill) and working on the damage of the roof due to the storm on Wednesday. There was no secure anchor to fix a saftey rope, thus we constructed one. This took some time, but it should be able to support an elephant. Jon went outside and checked what we need for repair.

Time 2002.0315.1800

End work on roof for today. Sun is going to set and we have no more direct sunlight on hab. We shall check if we have the material needed for repair, otherwise request Mission Control to send it with Sybil, who will join the crew on Sunday. We consider to do the repair in sim mode. We shall discuss this possibility tomorrow morning in detail.

Start working on reports.

Time 2002.0315.1900

Dinner, chicken and noodle soup with some vegetables and rice just put into it. With only one cooking plate providing rather moderate temperature, the possibilities are somehow limited. Nevertheless, spirits are high. Discussed Fermi's Paradoxon (When it only takes about 10 million years to colonize the complete galaxy, why has nobody done it yet in the 10 billion years of its existence?).

Time 2002.0315.1945

Resuming work on reports and in laboratory. Erik already starts detailed planning of tomorrow's EVA 33. If we manage to finish the reports in time, we consider to watch "Total Recall".

My crewmembers are really an excellent team. Coordination of the numerous things to accomplish works smooth and efficient. And the choice of the music in the hab is absolutely no problem!

Enginneering Report - Jonathan Dory

Water Systems: The water loss problem appears to be resolved. There has been no anomalous water loss since the deactivation of the reverse osmosis water filter. The valve was sealed to the filter last night and there was no loss of water overnight. Apparently, 3 meters of hydraulic head were sufficient to push water through filter at a rate of 16 to 24 gallons per day. The crew is relieved and feel justified in getting in a few more showers now that we are keeping our overall water consumption low. Unfortunately, the water heater seems to be regularly tripping the generator even when no other appliances are running. Fortunately, the internal water tank is located at the warmest location in the Hab and the water is quite comfortable even when not heated.

Power and Fuel: All of the small fuel tanks were filled from drums with the hand pump. The generator has been functioning well and all of the lights have stayed on in the Hab today.

EVA Equipment (including ATVs): The yellow Honda automatic transmission ATV has a rear tire which has slowly leaked to a dangerously low point. We have decided to take it out of rotation until the tire can be filled and the leak stopped.

Safety: None.

Computers and Communications: None.

General Maintenance & Waste Management: None.

Greenhouse Assessment: The Greenhouse was surveyed for wind damages today. It appears as though wind loads have permanently deformed the main cylindrical structure of the greenhouse. Because the plant beds are connected to this structure, they have been skewed as well. Pooling resulted in the east bed, which was relieved through the drains today. The west bed seems to be in good shape, and normal water pump cycling has resumed there. It is hoped that the door will be repaired in a coming days, and that the west bed can be populated with some test plants. Ultimately, the greenhouse structure will need some serious attention, both to right it.s east bed, and to strengthen the overall structure to repair further damage. The crew is putting together plans to stabilize the diameter of the structure with a radial array of cable rope in tension, supporting it like the spokes of a wheel while the length of the structure can be stabilized similarly with two diagonal cables across the back of each bed.

Roof: A belay anchor was fitted into the Hab dome supports and the roof damages were surveyed by repelling on a common climbing rig. The rubberized roofing material seemed to be torn in just one spot and will likely be fixed tomorrow with materials that are on hand. 2103/15/0. The belay station's strength is critical to safety, not only for these repairs, but because the overhead hatch also doubles as an emergency egress path in case of fire on the first floor.NoneNone.

EVA Report - Nell Beedle

  • EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

Today’s EVA 32 had a scientific and an operational objective.

The scientific objective was to scout and locate a measurable local stratigraphic section. The Hab is located in the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. We hoped to demonstrate the possibility of doing intense, detailed stratigraphy in full simulation. Geologists on Mars eventually may want to determine the relative ages of sediments and sedimentary rocks in a region, particularly when trying to reconstruct the depositional processes shaping the local terrain.

The operational objective was to find some local sand. It may be necessary to make some sandbags to make temporary repairs to the Hab roof. The roof was damaged during the sandstorm on 13 March.

DATE: 03-15-02

EVA Scenerio Area in the vicinity of Waypoint 81.
EVA HAB COMM (s) Carlstrom
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Beedle/1 Sklar/3 Dory/5 N/A
EVA START TIME (PET): 1025 EVA STOP TIME: 14:21 Scheduled/Actual 1355
  • EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Although we could maneuver reasonably safely on the steep slopes surrounding the Hab, we did not find intact, measurable stratigraphic features (bedding) to begin the work of measuring the section.

We also discovered that manipulating a typical field compass was difficult, and possible, but not completely satisfactory, under simulation constraints. Some thought is being given to constructing a simple tool to measure strikes/dips using a GPS unit, clinometers and possibly carpenter levels.

A small amount of sand was recovered from a local deposit near the ATV tracks west of the area of geologic interest.

Jonathan Dory, Engineer, returned from EVA operations early to retire an ATV with a flat tire, and to attend to the wind-damaged greenhouse.

Beedle was able to signal location to Hab from top of ridge using hand-mirror (other crewmembers were visible from the ridge top while repairing the greenhouse).

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation. Crew 3 is becoming more efficient at quickly mobilizing for EVA (see EVA32_prep.jpg).

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Sklar/Beedle - Normal egress and ingress (1355). Dory (1311) – normal egress and ingress; world record suit-exit time to attend to nature’s call. Sucessful radio check on handsets.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 12:10 13:11
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION Waypoint 81
REPORTED STATUS OK OK
Auxiliary Information

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

A vacuum clean was due for suits upon return. Suit backpack2 has an unknown malfunction (after charging, fans not operating). Will disassemble and attempt to repair 16 March.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: Detailed stratigraphy seems possible under the constraints of full simulation, but we need to improve our geologic tools for this work. We noticed that we are getting minor sunburn on our faces… either topical sunscreen, or a sun-shield attached to the suit helmets is suggested for extended fieldwork.

EVA MDRS1: Possible use of climbing equipment will help when working on steep slopes for safety reasons and more mobility to work with less restriction. Trouble with climbing slope in spacesuit and boots.

EVA MDRS2: Very steep slopes were climbed today, and suit accommodated surprisingly well. Nonetheless, visibility and mobility limitations caused by the suit make ‘the buddy system’ particularly important. Also, this EVA was primarily a geological survey. My primary role was to lead back to the location that was scouted yesterday. After arriving at the site, my role switched to documenting the geologists at work, which was quite gratifying. Final note: Drinking two quarts of tang before starting an EVA is NOT advised, even in the desert.

Biology Report - Tiffany Vora

While on EVA yesterday (EVA30A), I obtained four samples for later analysis. The first sample (EVA30A:1) was taken at GPS 4250686N, 518696E from a very fine-grained, porous sandstone. The second sample (EVA30A:3) was taken at GPS 4250480N, 518694E, still at location 1 on the EVA. EVA30A:3 is a coarse-grained cemented sandstone taken from the underside of the formation. The site was in shade. The third sample (EVA30A:10) was taken at 4250480N, 518693E at our second stop, a rock garden. EVA30A:10 came from a purplish-red mudstone that weathers gray; the location was exposed and in direct sunlight. The rock garden also provided a specimen of plant life with distinct morphology. The plant was dead, and I did not have to remove it from a permanent position in the rock – it was lying in a crevice between two boulders.

Cultures of EVA30A:1, EVA30A:3 and EVA30A:10 were inoculated in both normal and high salt (4.27M) media. The cultures are being incubated at 37 degrees C.

Aliquots (7 uL) were taken from the high salt cultures of Gypsum alone, EVA27, and Green Gypsum. The aliquots were dropped onto a high salt medium plate, spread, and placed at 37 degrees C. I hope to observe colony formation in the near future.

The culture of the EVA27 putative hypolith grew well in the low salt medium overnight, producing distinct turbidity and biofilms. Basic Gram staining was performed (see Fig. 1), and once again predominantly Gram positive bacteria were seen. However, fuschia particles can also be seen, possibly indicative of Gram negative bacteria in the culture. At this magnification I cannot discern whether the pink particles are actually cellular, but they are definitely not fibrous. Furthermore, I suspect that the EVA27 hypoliths are larger than the Gypsum bacteria isolated a few days ago, but I have yet to quantify that suspicion.

Figure 1

Fig. 1. Gram stain of EVA27 hypoliths; 100x Objective.

Figure 2

Fig. 2. Gram negative particles are visualized but inconclusive; 100x Objective.

The plant specimen had an interesting morphology, rather "martian" in character, see Figs 3 and 4. The mass of the specimen was 0.54g, and its end-to-end length was 27cm. Its maximum width (at the bulb) was 3.5cm, its height was 6.5cm, and the length of the longest radial arm was 10cm. Its texture was dry and firm, but appeared somewhat brittle, rather like onion skin. It had a dusty odor. Light areas were present only on one face, probably due to differential sunlight exposure.

Figure 3.

Fig. 3. Front view of specimen.

Figure 4

Fig. 4. Lateral view of specimen.

Figure 5

Fig. 5. A bird’s-eye view of the specimen. Note the radial region lacking branches (bottom of image).

Sunlight or wind constraints could cause such an asymmetrical morphology. In cross-section, the stalk was hollow; the outside diameter was 0.5cm and the inside diameter was 0.3cm at a position 5,75cm from the bottom of the stalk. I opened the main bulb along its vertical vein system, and discovered that the bulb was empty. The other two bulbs exhibited the same properties (see Fig. 6).

Figure 6

Fig. 6. The longitudinal veins of the bulb are clear at the dissecting level.

Upon later reflection, I realized that my automatic instinct to bring an interesting biological sample back to the lab could have had serious repercussions for a team on Mars. Science-fiction books and movies (not to mention the Apollo program) have harped upon the potential pathogenecity of any organisms coming from other planets. Infection of astronauts by endogenous life is an extreme scenario, but must nonetheless be considered while planning planetary science expeditions. Antiseptic technique, though basic, will prove to be critical.

The facilities that we now have at the hab are not adequate to provide the level of sterility that would be necessary on Mars, not only to ensure that the crew doesn’t acquire anything from the Mars organisms, but to guarantee that the reverse process does not occur either. Biosafety cabinets are an obvious example of equipment that could improve the sterility of the lab. Irradiation of the samples before entry into the lab would be practical for geologists or chemists, but certainly not for biologists – we’d have nothing left to study! However, a sterilizing procedure for suits and equipment, but not samples, in the airlock (both leaving the hab and entering it) would go a long way to preventing cross-contamination between the hab and the environment.

One more note – the green material I have previously described (3/13) appears to have been identified as Gloeocapsa in the biology report of 3/6/02. Algae is certainly a viable explanation for the morphology and characteristics of the green material. However, upon comparison of images from both reports, two crewmembers believe that the images represent different structures. We invite comparison and comment.

Geology Report - Stacy Sklar, Nell Beedle, Jonathan Dory

We revisited the area in the general vicinity of Waypoint 81. Our main objective was to find a suitable area to measure a local stratigraphic column. We climbed an approximately 200-meter tall hill looking for intact bedrock with any measurable bedding planes. Unfortunately, the heavy weathering of the mudstones on the slopes made working difficult, and we only located one or two intact sandstone layers with visible bedding. We have a single, preliminary orientation of a thinly-bedded (less than 5mm), reddish-brown, fine to medium-grained sandstone, dipping approximately 12 degrees NW, in the upper part of the Morrison Formation.

However, we did observe one interesting layer, or vein, less than 4mm thick, in the mudstones (UTM Zone 12 North 4250728N 518238E , EVA32_calcite.jpg). The mottled brown, orange and grayish white, striated, very thinly (less than 1mm) laminated calcite (hardness 3, scratch gray white, mild effervescence with HCl) was originally observed in small (less than 50mm) plates as "float" on the hillside. The delicate exposure of the calcite layer or vein is locally visible, but generally obscured by the claystones and mudstones weathering and washing down from above.

Nell and Stacy proceeded to do some additional reconnaissance along the ridgeline behind (west) of the Hab, capped by the Cretaceous-aged Dakota Sandstone, but found no additional places with well-exposed, complete, local sections. (But weĠll keep mulling over the problem).

Additional EVA photos (taken by Jonathan Dory):

March 16, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Last night we worked later than expected, and then we considered it being to late to watch a movie. We just chatted a little and went to bed around 2330.

Time 2002.0316.0800

Breakfast, today fried apples with bacon: One needs one apple and two slices of bacon per person (or may be the double amount in some cases, e.g. mine). Fry the bacan in a pan, then take it out and fry the apples - cut to pieces - in the grease from the bacon. When ready, put the apples in a bowl and crumble the bacon over it. Done.

Time 2002.0316.0850

Preparing EVA 33 performed by Erik and me. Finally I have managed to adjust all straps of my backpack properly and feel quite comfortable in the suit. We both attach mirrors to our wrist, which have proved to be very useful in several respects, see also EVA 33 report.

Time 2002.0316.0936

Erik and me enter the airlock for EVA.

Time 2002.0316.1227

Wind alarm sounds, has recorded a peak of 48 km/h. The flag is brought down.

Time 2002.0316.1245

Wind blows off the roof hatch. This could happen because after Jon had checked the roof yesterday, we fixed the hatch only partially, as we planned to go out soon again to repair it. However, due to the weather forecast predicting strong wind, we postponed this, but did not consider that the hatch has to be fixed quite thoroughly to secure it in the case of strong wind. Fortunately, even high wind speeds would not do much damage on Mars as the air density is much lower than on Earth. Otherwise we had to consider ourselves dead now. Jon went out to recover the hatch and brought it back in position, but this is only a temporary solution as something is broken off.

Time 2002.0316.1254

Wind peaks at 53 km/h.

Time 2002.0316.1504

End of EVA, regression completed. That was a long EVA and quite exhausting. We have a small snack and then we mark all the EVA waypoints we took coordinates of in the map and reconstruct our route. Take also voice recordings of our impressions and send to mission support. The navigation turned out to be much more difficult than we had expected and we lost our way various times, for details see EVA 33 report.

For me, coming from Germany, it was a copletely new experience to ride through such a wide contry. We cruised across it for more than five hours, without seeing a single soul, no other vehicle, no building, no sign of agriculture. Only some tire tracks ensured me that we were not the only humanoid creatures on this planet.

Meanwhile several repairing activities go on. Jon works on the construction of a new hatch for the roof, Nell and I found the cause for the malfunction of backpack #2, i.e. the switch, and replaced it by a spare. That was the first time I worked with a buthane powered soldering iron. Cool. Makes sense to have a tool for fixing electrics that does not rely on electricity. It was the last spare switch, and we also have no more spare fuses for the backpacks, see enineering report.

Preparation of dinner has already started, potato and corn chowder. I work on writing up this log.

Time 2002.0316.1920

Dinner.

Afterwards, we shall resume working on reports, today an EVA report and the engineering report. May be this night we shall later watch a movie.

Engineering Report

Water Systems: None.

Power and Fuel: None.

EVA Equipment (including ATVs): EVA Suit 2 has not been working for the last few days. Today, we troubleshooted the issue, thinking that the fuse had blown or the battery had gone bad. We found that I fact the main switch had failed and needed to be replaced. Fortunately we had one on hand and the problem was fixed in short order. Unfortunately, we had exactly one, so may not be able to do a similar repair in the case of another failure. We will need spares on hand. Also, it appears that there are no additional fuses on hand, and we will need more in event that one decides to blow. Other needs include a sewing kit for potential repairs of EVA suits or packs, and 12 volt batteries for the small volt meter.

The automatic transmission ATV is still out of service. The rear left tire is inoperably low and we have not yet been able to mend it. We have located and air compressor, but have not yet found the pneumatic tools needed to fill the tire.


Safety: None.

Computers and Communications: None.

General Maintenance & Waste Management: The composting toilet badly needs the composting material used for breaking down the waste. Strong winds continued today, driving the odor of the composter back into the hab.

EVA Report

  • EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

Today’s EVA 33 main objective was to explore the route to factory bench to enable subsequent expeditions to go there in reasonably fast to have considerable time left for scientific investigations.

DATE: 03-16-02

EVA Scenerio Route to

Factory Bench

EVA HAB COMM (s) Stacey
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Bjoern/1 Erik/4
EVA START TIME (PET): 09:36 EVA STOP TIME: 14:21 Scheduled/Actual 15:04
  • EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

We found it much more difficult to navigate than expected. Various times we took a wrong turn. The terrain was also quite difficult. One time one of the ATVs got stuck. We moved it by muscle power back in the track and were then able to proceed. At 13:40, we had still not reached Coal Mine Watch but were at UTM 4257523N 515563E. Even considering that the way back would most probably be much faster, we decided to not proceed any further today but return to the hab to be there before dusk in even in the worst case.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 10:10 11:20- 12:15 13:17 13:24 14:30
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION 4253656N

517446E

4256402N

517213E

4257614N

516970E

4256792N

515368E

4254497N

516126E

REPORTED STATUS OK OK OK OK OK OK
Auxiliary Information Hab warns that

EVA is off course

On way back

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

A vacuum clean was due for suits upon return.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: As mentioned, navigation was very difficult. Frequent position checks with GPS and maps are necessary, but these are time consuming. We should try to attach GPS devices visible to the ATVs to make the tedious procedure off getting them out with the gloves obsolete.

The tracks are partly quite difficult to ride. Erik has some quad experience, and I am used to ride motorcycles, which I think helps even though it is quite different. For inexperienced riders, today’s route would have been considerably dangerous in some sections.

When reattaching our luggage case to the ATV, one of the straps flipped off and hit my helmet quite hard. Without the helmet, this might have caused an injury.

EVA MDRS1: Navigation is some areas are especially difficult because of the heavy recreational ATV use in those areas. We missed several "roads" due to the fact that so many people had taken veering routes and the mapped paths were indistinguishable from the others.

Consideration should be taken for the size and mass of crewmembers when choosing ATV’s for use. Today, I used one of the Tan Hondas and this one had a particularly narrow wheel base compared to the Yellow automatic Honda (which currently has a flat tire). This made control of the ATV more difficult, especially on slopes or along slanted terrain. It was particularly evident when I tried to cross a wash and the ATV stuck at the bottom of the wash. After several tries to get the ATV out of the wash by driving or pulling/pushing the ATV, Björn had to get on the ATV and drive it out himself.

In order to quell the urges of nature, it is advisable NOT to drink any coffee the morning before an especially long EVA. Coffee is a natural diuretic and does not help you retain the water that you have drunk and are drinking while on EVA.

March 17, 2002

MDRS Log Book

MDRS Log, Commander Grieger

Last night was Stacey's last night in the hab, as she shares her two week shift with Sybil, who will arrive today. When all of yesterday's reports were done and sent to Mission Support, we watched the movie "Brother where art thou" (which I found to be very funny although I might not have understood more than one third of the text).

Time 2002.0317.0730

My alarm clock rings. The night was quite stormy, and I was awake several times from some noices the storm caused in the hab, thus I am a little bit tired this morning. But now the storm is over, and the sun shines from a blue Martian sky.

Time 2002.0317.0815

Coffee is ready, but besides Nell nobody else of the crew has shown up by now. They may also have not slept so well.

Time 2002.0317.0830

Only Erik has also shown up so far. We turn on some music.

Time 2002.0317.0845

Now all are up, having breakfast. Plan for today is that Nell and Tiff will go on an EVA and the rest of will stay in the hab. Jon is going to repair he roof and also fix the roof hatch, with has been blown off again in the night. Erik and me are going to assist him and take some pictures. Also plan to dismount the wheel with the flat tire from the ATV to get it fixed. Stacey wants to finish some work and has to pack her stuff.

Time 2002.0317.0930

The old roof hatch is prelimenary fixed again. It will we replaced by the new one Jon constructed.

Time 2002.0317.0945

The wheel with the flat tire is dismounted from the ATV. It's nice to have Jonathan around functioning as "jack" to lift the ATV ...

Time 2002.0317.1000

Starting preparation of EVA 34 by Nell and Tiff.

Time 2002.0317.1052

EVA team enters airlock.

Time 2002.0317.1057

EVA team departures. Some clouds have shown up now.

Time 2002.0317.1023

EVA comm check, position reported.

Time 2002.0317.1147

EVA comm check, position reported.

Time 2002.0317.1220

Starting work on roof. Jon is working outside. We have finally decided to do this off sim, see engineering report for details.

Time 2002.0317.1335

EVA comm check, position reported.

Time 2002.0317.1355

Roof repair completed, new hatch fixed. It has become pretty chilly outside. We are going to have lunch now.

Time 2002.0317.1430

We note an EVA comm attempt, but have no clear connection. As this happended frequently befor, we do not think about any problems at this time.

Time 2002.0317.1440

EVA team arrives back at the hab, both on only one ATV. By radio they request us to have some warm blankets and hot drinks ready before they enter the airlock. It turns out that they had to leave one EVA behind that did not start any more. They feel pretty cold but decide to stick to sim and go through the five minute regression procedure.

Time 2002.0317.1445

Regression completed. The returning team is offerd hot chocolate just as the helmets are deployed.

Time 2002.0317.1545

All are back to nominal operation temperature, thanks to a hot soup that Stacey prepared.

We decide to approach the recovery of the stalled ATV in a "semi sim mode" with two teams, one team - Nell, Jon and Erik - going out in full sim mode and see how far they can get with the recovery, the rest of us accompanying them off sim as backup team to provide additional help if needed and to document this event. Starting preparation of EVA 35.

Time 2002.0317.1615

Three local people on ATVs show up. Stacey and I go outside to welcome them. They are very interested in our project, and ask if they can come back next week with a visiting child to see the hab. We ensure them that they are welcome.

Time 2002.0317.1630

EVA 35, the ATV Recovery Task Force, departs from the hab. The EVA is described in detail in the corresponding report.

Time 2002.0317.1737

The ATV Recovery Task Force completed the mission successfully in full sim mode and enters the airlock.

Time 2002.0317.1742

Regression completed. After taking off and cleaning the space suits, we start transmitting the pictures of today and working on the reports.

Time 2002.0317.1930

Dinner. Excellent spaghetti prepared by Nell.

Time 2002.0317.2030

Resume working on reports.

Crew rotation 3 now lives and works in the hab for one week. Many of the tasks we have to accomplish in the hab and in our explorations have become a kind of routine. However, unexpected events are never more than a footstep ahead.

Time 2002.0317.2100

Sybil arrives. Stacey has met her in Hanksville and led the way to the hab. We try to finish reports ASAP to spend some time together and celebrate Nell's birthday before Stacey leaves.

Biology Geology Report

Nell Beedle and Tiffany Vora

Three stops on EVA34 were for the specific purpose of collecting samples for the geologists and biologists. We focused on areas with salt deposits to search for halophilic bacteria.

GEO1/BIO1.

UTM: 4253151N, 514581E. Facing SE, Elevation 1468m. Waypoint 89.

Fissile greenish-black (weathers gray) mudstone/siltstone with thin (less than 5 mm) layers of satin spar gypsum and sandy mudstone. Gypsum crystals were removed with forceps for biological analysis.

BIO2.

UTM: 4252934N, 514424E. Facing SES, Elevation 1458m. Waypoint 90.

A buff/reddish-brown thin-bedded medium-grained sandstone boulder, approximately 5 meters in diameter at the base of a west-trending side canyon. We hypothesize the water had run over the face of the boulder, depositing salts. Chips of the boulder, including the “salt” deposits, were sampled for biological analysis.

GEO2/BIO3:

UTM: 4252941N, 514432E. Facing ESE, Elevation 1459m. Waypoint 91.

Sample site 3 was a rock overhang with thin (less than 5mm) laminated mudstone, blackish/gray, weathers brown with extensive weathering and crystalline (rosette) salts deposited along fractures. Flakes of crystalline salts (gypsum?) were gently removed with forceps from weathered cracks for biological analysis.

EVA Report

Nell Beedle

EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

Today's EVA 34 main objective was to search for gypsum deposits and halophilic organisms within the lower Mancos Shales at the base of Skyline Rim.

DATE: 03-18-02

EVA Scenerio Recover stalled ATV
EVA HAB COMM (s) Grieger
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3 MDRS4
EVA CREW (Name/#) Beedle/2 Sharavelle/3 Vora/6 Dory/5 Carlstrom/5
EVA START TIME (PET): 1106 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual 1247

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

We successfully navigated to the general area of Waypoints 62 and 64 along the base of Skyline Rim. We then proceeded up a nearby, west-trending side-canyon in search of intact Mancos Shale Formation rocks cropping out. We found several accessible deposits with satin spar and crystalline gypsum, and collected samples for biological analysis.

The weather deteriorated throughout the EVA, and at 1335, we decided to return to MDRS. At this point, Vora noted that she was feeling chilled and needed to return directly to MDRS. We had difficulty crossing the deeply incised ephemeral streambeds of the outwash plain at the base of Skyline Rim, but we were well on track to the Hab within approximately 20 minutes.

On top of the unnamed ridge behind the Hab, Vora's ATV stalled several times, eventually refusing to restart. After struggling with the ATV for approximately 20 to 30 minutes, we determined we could safely return to the Hab on a single ATV. Beedle felt the circumstances (Vora chilled, weather deteriorating) warranted the risk associated with return on a single ATV. Upon approach, Vora alerted HabComm that we would need hot liquids and warm clothing. Vora and Beedle successfully completed re-pressurization simulation at 1445.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation. Review of data from previous visits to Skyline Rim. Plotted previous waypoint data on field maps.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal egress and ingress. Radio check on handsets worked normally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

Normal clean-up. Vora was warmed in the Hab lab with Hot Chocolate and blankets.p.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: Navigation with GPS and maps was successful, but required frequent stopping to verify position due to lack of landmarks across the outwash plain. Concur with Grieger (EVA33) that it would be a good idea to mount the GPS devices visible to the ATV drivers, possibly with a quick-release mechanism to allow the deivices to be easily detached while working away from the ATV. Beedle actually drove ATV while holding the GPS.

Particularly because we were working in deep canyons during deteriorating weather, we tried to remain alert to changing conditions. When the temperature dropped rapidly, accompanied by strong winds, we decided to begin heading out of the canyon.

We were very successful in finding good exposures based on the descriptions of the area from the team who previously visited the area. This demonstrates that we could do sustained, long-term studies at MDRS across several crew rotations.

EVA MDRS1: One objective of this EVA was to gather fresh biological samples from an area that Crew 1 (EVA8) had reported as containing halophilic bacteria. We chose the area around Waypoints 62 and 64 out of three potential sites because we believed it would provide a more unique environment than the other two sites (Waypoints 69-75 and Candor Chasma), which were potentially similar to each other. Biological samples were gathered from three sites and possibly represent 3 different types of salt deposits. Biological analysis will follow. Falcon tubes rather than baggies were used for sampling in an effort to increase the level of sterility during sampling. Forceps greatly facilitated the sampling process.


EVA 35

EVA Overview Table Not Included in Report

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

The Hab crew, after a warming lunch, reached a consensus to do a full-group EVA to recover the stalled, abandoned ATV on the ridge behind the Hab.

We went out with Carlstrom driving the remaining ATV carrying tools, a tow rope, flashlights and a bottle of motor oil. Beedle, Dory followed on foot, with Beedle directing the crew to the location of the abandoned ATV. Grieger, Vora and Sklar followed on foot (out of sim) to document the recovery.

The EVA team diagnosed a possible bad sparkplug, but were unable to remove the plug with the available tools, within the restrictions of sim (helmets prevented close viewing of engine; gloves prevented removal of plug, even with improvised tools).

After failing to revive the stalled ATV, with daylight diminshing and snow flurries in the air, the EVA35 team decided to tow the stalled ATV back to the Hab. The ATV was pushed/ridden (Dory/Beedle) in neutral to a flat area at the base of the ridge, where it was towed (Carlstrom/Dory) back to the Hab.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal suit donning and preparation, including packing as many tools as felt were necessary to potential repair ATV

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Egress was approximately 1 minutes as team was concerned about losing daylight (non-normal sim ops). Radio check on handsets worked normally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

Please note, HabComm accompanied EVA35 team, and was in nearly constant direct voice communication.

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

Normal ingress and clean-up.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: I'm very grateful for the support of our team, particularly with respect to our hurried return from EVA34.

EVA MDRS1: Well, I personally felt frustrated that our ATV's have been breaking down to the point that we are down to a single ATV. WE did find however that it was not very difficult to tow one ATV with another.

EVA MDRS2: This EVA was particularly interesting for me (Engineer) from the perspective that Mars explorers are bound to end up performing unexpected fixes in the field. Suits for EVA severely impair the ability to manipulate tools and perform repairs. While suits can be designed to improve manual dexterity, there are limits. Ultimately, all equipment, particularly light rovers will have to be designed to be VERY reliable and be highly serviceable when inevitable breakdowns do occur.

March 18, 2002

MDRS Log Book

MDRS Log, Commander Grieger

Last night it was well after midnight when Stacey left. Although we all know each other not more than one week, it seems to us as if we have trained together to go to Mars for months. Thus we were really sad when Stacey left. Besides the fact that she was the only one who was already a little bit familiar with the facilities of the Station when we arrived, we all appreciated her way she gets billions of things done almost unoticed. May be she is the one of us most dedicated to go to Mars, both in a human and in a personal perspective.

Time 2002.0318.0730

My alarm clock rings. The night was short, it takes me about fifteen minutes to get awake enough to stand up.

Time 2002.0318.0830

Breakfast. Cooking eggs today. Is it neccessary to poke a hole in the shell to prevent it from cracking? We poke four of six eggs, the other two not. One of the not poked eggs crack, all others are fine. May somebody else run a statistical test on this, we don't have a table of the Student-T-Distribution at our disposal ...

Time 2002.0318.0915

EVA briefing. Main objective of today's EVA 36 is to make our new crew member Sybil familiar with the space suit and with the surroundings of the hab.

Time 2002.0318.1015

Beginning EVA preparation.

Time 2002.0318.1030

A service man for our BioLet toilett shows up. This is a device just recently installed in the hab and we had a little "smelling problem. He added some appropriate composting material and adjusts the ventilation hose. Especially for the ladies, the most stunning news of today is that - in contrast to our instructions, which obviously refer to the previously installed Incinolet - we ARE alloweded to urinate into the BioLet.

Time 2002.0318.1106

The five members of EVA 36 enter the airlock.

Time 2002.0318.1111

Egression completed. EVA 36 member Sybil plants our Martian flag which was recently brought down due to strong wind and the team departures.

Time 2002.0318.1135

EVA comm check, OK. They can be seen from the hab.

Time 2002.0318.1155

EVA 36 reports that the team had split up and that two members are on the way back to the hab.

Time 2002.0318.1205

Two members are back in the airlock.

Time 2002.0318.1210

Regression completed. One of the EVA members is not well. We prepare hot tea and HSO (Health and Safety Officer) Jon reports the medical issue to the flight surgeon.

Time 2002.0318.1242

The other three members of EVA 36 are back in the airlock.

Time 2002.0318.1247

Regression completed. Debriefing of EVA

Time 2002.0318.1315

Start working on the flat tire of one ATV. The tire is inflated with an instant tire repair kit. To allow distribution of the sealing material in the tire, I ride the ATV for a few kilometers and than check the lock nuts again.

Time 2002.0318.1345

Back to full ATV strength.

We have lunch and a discussion on water recycling starts, which is inspired by Sybil, who works in this area.

We make plans for tomorrow when a New York Times reporter will show up and stay in the hab for 24 hours. We like him to get an as much as possible complete impression of what is going on her, but we also like to continue our scientific program.

Time 2002.0318.1440

We look after the spare generator, that we did not manage to start when the main generator broke down Wednesday.

Time 2002.0318.1445

Spare generator up and running. Darkness and exitement must have hindered us to put all switches and valves to the correct settings when we tried to start it Wednesday night.

Besides working on the waypoint database and an today's reports, the usual housekeeping activities are due. Today the crew - including me - is a little bit exhausted from the last busy days. We spend the afternoon more relaxed than usual to gain new motivation for tomorrow.

We have the idea to create an evaluation report of our rotation in MDRS. We collect a lot of issues we like to address. This will be worked out in more detail during the remaining days.

Time 2002.0318.1930

For dinner we have "Martian Strata. This is almost, although not completely, absolutely not like Mexican Lasagne.

We discuss the manned exploration of Mars and how our work can contribute to it. This is more interesting than writing this log. Signing off for today.

Engineering Report

Jonathan Dory

Water Systems: Water was filled again tonight to 61 gallons. The last fill was three days ago, since which time we have used only 50 gallons. We're using only 17 gallons per day, which is what we were losing before we identified the reverse osmosis filter leak - not bad for a not too smelly crew of 6 in the desert.

Power and Fuel: We had a fuse blow on the generator this morning while there were very few power hungry appliances running. Hmmm... Haven't figured that one out yet, but the fix was just and pre-coffee trip to the generator

EVA Equipment (including ATVs): We performed an emergency recognizance EVA today in order to recover an ATV that was stalled during EVA 34 (See EVA 35 report). We attempted to repair the ATV in the field but diagnosed the problem as a "sparks" issue. Having no spare spark plugs with us and having additional difficulty accessing the engine compartment with EVA gloves on, we decided to tow the ATV back to hab. The very short tow rope (less than 2 1/2 meters) was a concern, but found that keeping the towing ATV in first gear and keeping the towed ATV brakes depressed worked quite well on the steep negative grades coming back to the hab. We are now down to one ATV as the automatic transmission ATV has a flat tire that we are in the process of repairing. That ATV is up on blocks. Fortunately, "there are no shortage of stones here" as our wise commander so elegantly put it.

Safety: Wind took the hatch from the upper deck today because it had only been temporarily secured after roof damage inspection. The hatch was damaged in the process, so a new one was constructed. Because the hatch doubles as an emergency egress hatch, the new one will be attached by hinges and a quick release pin. The previous hatch had been bolted, which may have prevented quick access through the hatch. With the new hatch and newly secured anchor, emergency egress through the roof should be much safer.

Computers and Communications: None.

General Maintenance & Waste Management: The "bugs" and composting material for the Biolet have arrived! The situation has much improved and we look forward to future rotations of sanitary odor free waste composting.

Roof Repair: The roof repair is complete. The Engineer repelled down the roof (out of sim) with safe belay from Erik below. The repair was completed with rubber roofing material placed, glued and screwed to the roof under the tear, and then the torn material glued on top and screwed into position. Each screw was placed into a bed of silicone to keep it from introducing a leak into the roof. The crew had considered attempting this repair in sim in order to demonstrate the ability to perform such repairs on a real Mars mission. We decided however that EVA repairs have been sufficiently demonstrated by NASA on such missions as the recent STS-109 Hubble Servicing Mission 3B in which several components that were not designed to be serviced in orbit were repaired or replaced. Too, such a roof repair would not be required on Mars as dynamic pressures caused by high winds are low there due to the low atmospheric density.

EVA Report

Nell Beedle

EVA SCENERIO OVERVIEW

Today's EVA 36 primary objective was to introduce our new crewmember, Sybil Sharavelle, to the EVA suit and the immediate area around the Hab.

DATE: 03-18-02

EVA 36 Stat Table

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Five out of six crewmembers suited up to introduce our newest team member to the area around the Hab. Sybil Sharavelle's first official task was to re-erect the MDRS flag. The flag was struck 16 March due to high winds. Jonathan Dory then gave Sharavelle a walking tour of the area around the Hab. The entire crew then took an approximately half-hour exploration of the low hills around the Hab, giving Sharavelle a chance to walk-about in the EVA suit for the first time.

After about a half-hour, Dory and Carlstrom returned to the Hab. Beedle, Vora and Sharavelle continued examining the low hills around the Hab for fossils. Beedle and Vora introduced Sharavelle to the general features of the local geology as can be observed in the area. Both GPS units failed at approximately 1200hr, but the remaining EVA crewmembers were in sight of the lab, and were able to navigate via landmarks.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal suit donning and preparation.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Normal airlock ingress/depress. Note that five of six crewmembers fit into airlock. Six would be a squeeze. Radio check on handsets worked normally.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION Hab (visual contact as well) 750m east of Hab Hab 1500 m

east of Hab

Hab
REPORTED STATUS OK OK OK OK OK
Auxiliary Information Dory/Carls team

returning to Hab

Dory/Carls

team returning

to Hab

Report GPS

out

Beedle/Vora/

Sharavelle return

to HAB

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

Normal ingress and clean-up.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: Sybil already has extensive knowledge of the Hab and EVA suit construction, which will benefit the team. We decided to teach Sybil how to handle an ATV out of sim, so that the first lesson wouldn't be complicated by communication or EVA suit restrictions. Upon reflection, the team agrees that it is probably not wise to leave a single person along in the Hab. We resolve always to have two team members ("buddies") in the Hab.

EVA MDRS1: Today was my first EVA experience and I found it amazing how much I really felt like I was on a Mars mission. The space suit created a real sense of separation from the environment. I found that I even looked at things in a totally different way than I have before going on hikes or walks in Utah. I noticed geological features more and observed things in a more analytical manner. It was more difficult to navigate our way around than I would have expected. A more detailed map would be highly useful. The suit became slightly uncomfortable toward the end of the EVA. Due to my small shoulder size the helmet did not fit correctly on my shoulders and pushed the back of my head forward, eventually causing neck pain. This was not intolerable, but slightly uncomfortable and may have become intolerable on a longer EVA. The failure of both GPS devices was not a problem today, but was a little bothersome when thinking about more distant EVAs.

EVA MDRS2: Today's EVA did not have any specific biological objectives. We were looking for fossils, but we did not intend to perform any further analyses on them. To me, the object of today's exercise was to follow another crew's coordinates to an interesting location. However, I do not believe that objective was achieved, as we could not match the coordinates to the description of the location. This was my first pedestrian EVA. My only problem was the constant shifting of the weight of my pack from my hips to my shoulders. It is difficult to make the proper equipment adjustments in sim. My back and shoulders were fatigued by the end of the EVA. Also, the tendency of the helmet to fall forward so that the back rests on the back of my head makes walking with my head upright more difficult than it should be.

EVA MDRS3: Today's EVA was also my first pedestrian EVA. Because this was Sibyl's first EVA ever and because we were so closed to the Hab, I tried to take the perspective that this was one of our first EVA's after arriving on Mars. In this exercise, I imagined that all of my prior knowledge of the area from previous EVA's was in fact from prior training before the mission. It is my feeling that the first Martian explorers will have intimately knowledge of the surroundings of their landing site before they arrive. Already we have higher resolution maps of the Martian surface than we have of the Earth's surface (due to ocean coverage). I believe that once the first astronauts arrive on Mars, they will feel quite familiar with the site contrary to the "terra incognita" scheme commonly portrayed in fiction.

EVA MDRS4: I have nothing to add to this report.

March 19, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Björn Grieger

This morning I get up a little bit earlier to switch on the water heater as some of us are envisaging their second shower during this rotation. The high power consumption of the water heater has caused breakdowns of our power system when we last activated it, therefore I first deactivate almost all other devies (Fridges, BioLet, lights, music).

Time 2002.0319.0705

Switching on hot water. While waiting that the water warms up, I would like to have a coffee, but I do not dare to use the coffee machine simultaneously.

Time 2002.0319.0725

Switching hot water off.

Time 2002.0319.0730

Jon and me have showers. It's ... hm, not warm. It seems to take some time before the warm water reaches the shower through the hoses. When we all six head showers one after the other last thursday, the first and last were also "not warm".

Time 2002.0318.0800

BIG breakfast, bacon, pancakes. We put together a shopping list for the next rotation, things we think they may like to have and also things that are already her in large amounts (e.g. bacon). This leads us to a general discussion of food and water issues for a Mars mission.

Time 2002.0319.0830

Nell and Sybil go out to get our new crew member an ATV introduction. After that they come back in to resume breakfast.

Time 2002.0318.0930

The envisaged reporter and a photographer from New York Times show up. They talk with the complete crew at the breakfast table, then Jon shows them around.

Time 2002.0319.1030

EVA 37 (comprising Nell and Sybil) suit donning with the reporters around.

Time 2002.0319.1106

EVA 37 enters the airlock.

Time 2002.0319.1111

Egression completed. EVA 37 departs on ATVs to nvestigate Candor Chasma.

Time 2002.0319.1115

Suit donning of EVA 38. The team comprises Tiff, Jon and the New York Times reporter, who we finally managed to talk into this.

Time 2002.0319.1149

EVA 38 enters the airlock.

Time 2002.0319.1154

Egression completed, EVA 38 departs walking up the local ridge.

Time 2002.0319.1219

Comm check EVA 38. OK.

Time 2002.0319.1233

Comm check EVA 37, coordinates reported.

Time 2002.0319.1302

EVA 38 back in airlock.

Time 2002.0319.1307

Regression completed.

We have lunch together with the New York Times people, and then we are interviewed one by one. The crewmembers not occupied start working on reports or in the laboratory.

Time 2002.0319.1500

Individual interviews completed. A continuously changing subset of crew members (the ones ocasionally taking breaks from their work) discusses all issues of manned space flight with the reporters.

Time 2002.0319.1536

EVA 37 is back in airlock.

Time 2002.0319.1541

Regression completed.

Time 2002.0319.1550

Reporter goes for wine.

Time 2002.0319.1600

EVA 37 members back in living compartment, they have (late) lunch. Now it's their turn to be interviewed.

Time 2002.0319.1715

We go out for a group photo for the New York Times, off sim, with suits but no back packs, and helmets in the hands.

Time 2002.0319.1745

Back in, already preparing the dinner in advance, "Alan Shepard's Pie", see the Mars cookbook.

Time 2002.0319.1750

The photographer leaves (but the reporter is going to stay for the night).

Time 2002.0319.1800

Preparation of comet EVA 39. We plan a night EVA to observe a comet that should be visible in the western evening sky. We do this night EVA in semi sim mode, i.e. Jon and me are in full sim wearing the suits, the others accompany us off sim.

Time 2002.0319.1843

Jon and me enter the airlock. Looking through the small window in the outer door of the airlock and seeing the evening sky over the Martian like landscape is very impressive. EVAs are not as much a routine for me as I thought.

Time 2002.0319.1848

Egression completed. Stepping out into the dusk. The sun already sank behind the local ridge, the sky is deep blue, the crescent of the moon shines bright.

Time 2002.0319.1955

Jon and me back in the airlock. This night EVA was an extraordinary experience for me, see the EVA 39 report.

Time 2002.3019.2000

Regression completed. As Dinner was prepared in advance, we shall sit down for it in a few minutes und speak about our experiences. After that we shall write today's geology report and tonight's EVA 39 report. Closing the log for today.

EVA 37 Report

Sybil Sharvelle

EVA Scenerio Collect gypsum

samples from

Candor Chasma

EVA HAB COMM (s) Eric Carlstrom
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Beedle-2 Sharvelle-3
EVA START TIME (PET): 11:06 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual 15:41

*EVA HIGHLIGHTS (EVA CDR)

ATVs were driven to a road location near Candor Chasma and went the rest of the way by foot. We were a

little off track in the beginning, but found our way without too much difficulty. The GPS device was extremely

helpful in keeping us on track. Upon arrival to the canyon we immediately found abundant gypsum

throughout the canyon walls. Gypsum samples were chipped from canyon walls but there was no clear

evidence of microbial life. We were not able to walk through the entire canyon, but took samples from various

locations on the west side.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal suiting up operations were undergone plus some explanation of gypsum and the geological history of

Candor Chasma from Nell to Sybil.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress, degress, and radio check.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 1233
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

37
ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION 425142N

520317E

REPORTED STATUS Going into canyon
Auxiliary Information

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: Once again, the Magellan300 failed us, while the Magellan310 worked. Surprisingly, we got

good satellite coverage down in the deep canyon, no doubt because the canyon floor is quite wide in places.

So even though the canyon walls are in places 20 to 30 meters high, we had GPS positioning. However, there

were no comms with the Hab, but we could communicate with EVA38 on Hab Ridge.

It was quite apparent after today that these suits will be very uncomfortable in the heat of the day within a

couple of weeks. The high recorded at the Hab today 23degreesC. One solution may be to start EVA work just

after sunrise, and try to get as much work done before high noon as possible.

EVA MDRS1: Our EVA today was incredibly enjoyable. The scenery and weather was amazing. I found

driving around on the ATV with a space suit on to be quite fun. I was able to resolve most of my suit comfort

issues today by adjusting the backpack to better fit. However, I did have issues with my hair falling out of the

rubber band that I had it tied back in. It definitely obstructed my view. This is an issue I had not thought of

prior to our departure. This is something I need to ensure does not happen again in the future. We had a few

minor diversions from the path today but were easily able to get back on track using the GPS.

EVA 38 Report

Jonathan Dory

EVA Scenerio Media (NY Times)

tour of Hab Ridge

EVA HAB COMM (s) Eric Carlstrom
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Jonathan Dory

EVA/5

Tiffany Vora EVA/6
EVA START TIME (PET): 11:49 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual N/a / 1307

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

This was a relatively brief pedestrian EVA with Tiffany and I hosting New York Times Reporter Blaine Harden and freelance photographer Mickey Krakowski in a tour of the Hab ridge and surrounding area. Harden was in full EVA suit, at the crew’s recommendation, so that he could document the experience of working in the field under Mars conditions.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal suit donning operations. Blaine was instructed on the design, operation, and simulation intent of the suits.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally, however EVA 37 was still in range of radios on frequency 2:00, as EVA 38 suit donning operations began immediately following EVA 37 egress, so there was initial confusion when EVA 37 overheard EVA 38 com checks.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 1219
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

EVA 38
ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION
REPORTED STATUS OK
Auxiliary Information Excellent communication

from top of Hab Ridge.

Too, EVA 37 comm check

could easily be heard on

channel 2:00

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: This was a particularly rewarding EVA in terms of the view from atop Hab Ridge. Today was a very clear day with no visible cloud cover. This was my first trip to the top of the ridge, and this was a great opportunity to view the local geological "neighborhood" of our Hab. One interesting observation was the abundance of jet contrails moving linearly from horizon to horizon over the high altitude desert. While simulation implied being lone explorers on an uninhabited alien world, it’s hard not to be impressed by the aerial highway above, with hundreds of human travelers at the tip of every white streak in the sky.

EVA MDRS1: I thoroughly enjoyed today’s EVA. This was my second trip to the top of the ridge overlooking the Lower Blue Hills, but since I was walking this time, it was a completely different experience. Driving the ATV requires my complete attention, and I am unable to watch the scenery. Today, however, I was able to appreciate my surroundings – it occurred to me that the trip to Mars would be worth it for scenery a quarter as beautiful as that around the hab. We walked along the ridge to a place where we found a veritable carpet of bivalve fossils, which we have identified as Gryphaea. We believe this is the point described by a previous crew as containing abundant fossils. Our visitors experienced an EVA that was both safe and productive without being overambitious.

EVA 39 Report

Björn Grieger

EVA Scenario Overview:

Tonight&rsquo;s EVA 39 objective was the observation of a comet that should be visible in the western evening

sky. In general we intended to gain some experience with night EVAs. For safety reasons, we performed the EVA

in "semi sim mode", i.e. the two EVA team members are in full sim mode, but the rest of the crew accompanies

them off sim.

EVA CALL SIGN: EVA-39

DATE: 03-19-02                            

EVA Scenerio Walking up the

local ridge

EVA HAB COMM (s)
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2 MDRS3
EVA CREW (Name/#) Bjoern/1 Jon/5
EVA START TIME (PET): 18:43 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual 20:00

                 

*EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Standing in the space suit on the local ridge while the daylight slowly vanishes and the stars appear in the sky was

an extraordinary experience. We could not observe the comet, presumably because Venus was close to its position

and her bright light may have washed it out. But that was not the point. Usually, on an EVA, the space suit and the

helmet isolates me from the environment and my perception of the impressive landscape here is attenuated. But

tonight seeing the starry sky through the dome of my helmet, I felt myself being closer to the stars than ever before.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Nominal suit donning and preparation.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Nominal ingress and depress. Radio check on handsets worked nominally, however EVA 37 was still in range of

radios on frequency 2:00, as EVA 38 suit donning operations began immediately following EVA 37 egress, so

there was initial confusion when EVA 37 overheard EVA 38 com checks.

HAB EVA MONITORING

None.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: I dressed very warm under the space suit for this night EVA (long undertrousers, thermal shirt). At

first, walking up the local ridge, I thought that I was dressed too warm, but standing up there for a while, I felt quite

comfortable.

EVA MDRS1: The night EVA was particularly rewarding. The headlamps and wrist lights that we attached to the

suit worked quite well and we felt very safe navigating our position in the field. Our full intention was given to the

stars and planets above. I enjoyed imagining that we were viewing the heavens from the surface of Mars, where the

constellations would look much the same. How strange it would be to look back on the single bright point in the

sky called Earth.

March 20, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Commander Grieger

Time 2002.0320.0700

I am awake, but I enjoy just laying in my sleeping bag until my alarm clock rings at 0730. In fact I feel much more

comfortable in my sleeping bag on the self-inflating air matrasse than I had expected. Well, I have to admit that I

brought a real pillow. I hope I shall also be allowed to do this in the actual Mars mission ...

Time 2002.0320.0815

Breakfast, again bacon. We have a lot of that - and the next crew rotation will still have a lot of it.

Time 2002.0320.0900

Briefing of today's EVA. We shall continue the exploration of Candor Chasma that has been visited yesterday by

EVA 37. This time we shall concentrate on biological samples.

Time 2002.0320.0930

EVA 40 preparation, team conprises Till, Sybil and me.

Time 2002.0320.0955

EVA 40 team enters the airlock to depart to Candor Chasma.

Time 2002.0320.1305

EVA team is back in the hab. It has been pretty warm during the EVA. The hab's weather station reports a

maximum temperature of 30.2C. We do debriefing of the EVA and voice recordings of our impressions. We shall

try to avoid EVAs during the hotest hours of the day if the high temperatures persist. In the near future, cooling

systems will be installed in the space suits.

Time 2002.0320.1330

Erik prepares Lunch for all.

As both cameras we had taken with us failed, there are no pictures from today's EVA. Therefore I now take some

pictures from our "daily life on Mars" and transmit them to Mission Support.

The afternoon continues with our usual work, i.e. writing reports on our scientific work and accomplishing the

neccesary housekeeping activities (generator and water tank refill etc.), but at some time the decreasing number of

days remaining for our work at MDRS comes to our mind. Today is Wednesday, and our rotation will end on

Sunday. Considering that we need the last day for packing our stuff, cleaning up and hand-over of the station, there

are only three days left. Besides furhter scientific work and EVA explorations (and handling media coverage by

German FOCUS TV on Friday), we have to create several overview documents about our work and our

impressions. This comprises also updating the way point database and the station manual. Moreover, we like to

write up a general evaluation of the two weeks we spend at MDRS. We notice that we must begin with the

coordination of these tasks right now.

Time 2002.0320.1830

Dinner, BarsoomBQ created by Nell and Sybil.

Time 2002.0320.1930

We start with a brainstorming on issues for our evaluation and then structure the results and attribute tasks to crew

members. If I have not already mentioned it elsewhere, this team really excellently works together.

Time 2002.0320.2100

We split up and work on finishing the reports for today and on cleaning the dishes from the dinner. We plan to have

everything done by 2230 and possibly watch a movie.

Closing the log for today.

EVA 40 Report

Tiffany Vora

EVA Scenario Overview

Today's EVA was focused on collecting biological samples in Candor Chasma.

EVA Call Sign: EVA-40

DATE: 03-20-02                            

EVA Scenerio Candor Chasma - bio
EVA HAB COMM (s) Beedle
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2
EVA CREW (Name/#) Vora/6 Sharvelle/3 Grieger/1
EVA START TIME (PET): 9:55 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual 13:05

                 

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Candor Chasma is a remarkable site for both biologists and geologists. I sampled four sites for possible halophilic

bacteria. One of those sites (#1) included a water seep which caused varied salt formation in the rock overhang.

Today was a clear day, and the sun made the bottom of the chasma rather hot. We moved among shady spots and

liberally consumed our water. Sybil did an admirable job navigating to the chasma, and we entered in a slightly

different location than was used on EVA37. Unfortunately, we were able to take no pictures, as one digital camera

had no disk and Bjoern&rsquo;s spy camera ran out of power. I guarantee that those mistakes will not be made by

this crew again. During our return we spotted two indigenous organisms, a biped and a quadriped. Neither

responded to our attempts at contact, but observed our movements.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal staging and suiting up.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Normal ingress and depress. Radio checks completed.

HAB EVA MONITORING                

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 10:20
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION 4251978N

519700E

REPORTED STATUS OK
Auxiliary Information

                      

Text for EVA Monitoring:

The nature of the terrain prohibited frequent communication between hab and EVA.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: I strongly recommend that crews rotating in the warmer months design their EVAs to take place

between 7-10 am and 2-6 pm or later as the days become longer. It is highly inadvisable to be on EVA during the

hottest hours of the day. However, we were pleased at the lack of clouds, as we did not have to worry about flash

flooding. I tested the third point of restraint on my helmet during this EVA, and I found that holding the helmet in

place is more comfortable, but seeing myself or manipulating my pockets became far more difficult. I am also

concerned about cross-contamination between biological samples from the sampling tools while in the field. I will

test a system during my next EVA.

EVA MDRS1: Today&rsquo;s EVA was a success. I was the designated navigator, being that I had visited the

site yesterday during EVA 37. I was mostly successful in getting us there quickly and efficiently, as I only got us off

track for about 5 minutes. Today was extremely hot, hotter than yesterday. Current outdoor temperature is 21.7C

at local time 15:11. A cooling system for the suits should be implemented ASAP. We had issues with the camera

today, as we forgot to bring the disk. Bjorn had brought his own camera, which we were able to use until the

batteries ran out and we lost all data. We may want to consider making a very short checklist posted in the EVA

room. Some reported that I drove the ATV like a "bat out of hell." However, I can assure all that I was completely

safe.

EVA MDRS2: During this EVA my task should have been to document the sampling by taking pictures and I was

also still looking for rock covered by sand to investigate the colors. I indeed found such rock and took images, but

shortly before our return point in Candor Chasma my camera lost power and erased all the images, and &ndash; as

already mentioned &ndash; the other camera did also not work.. As I was not longer busy with taking images on

the way back, I could take some closer look at the rich sedimentation features.

Biology Report

Tiffany Vora Reporting

This morning’s EVA, EVA40, was specifically designed to sample areas of Candor Chasma that potentially have biological significance. Please refer to the Geology report (Beedle and Sharvelle) of March 19 (EVA37) for a complete description of the geological features of the canyon. No photographs of EVA40 sample sites can be shown because we experienced failure with both our digital cameras (for different reasons).

Sample site 1 (UTM 4251209N, 520232E) was extremely interesting from a biological point of view. The site was a shady undercut region of the cliff that was at most 0.5m deep. The site first caught my eye because thin yellowish plants appeared to be growing directly out of the rock. Salt formations were present in different morphologies, such as stalactites from the overhang and nodular regions that were yellowish-tinged. Upon closer inspection, it became evident that water was actually seeping out of the rock into the overhang approximately 0.75m from the base of the rock. I sampled moist nodular salt formations into a 50 mL Falcon tube with gentle forcep technique, and by the time I had returned to the hab, the sample had hardened to cake-frosting consistency. To my extreme dismay, I have no available picture of the sample site. Perhaps tomorrow’s EVA will return with a suitable photograph. Sample site 1 has been designated Way Point 86 for future analysis.

Sample site 2 (UTM 4251177N, 520310E) was designated as Way Point 83 in yesterday’s EVA37. The region was a North/South trending overhang in deep shade. There was no visible water at the site. By scraping with a spoon, I sampled a slab of gypsum that was disturbed on EVA37 (see Fig.1)

Fig. 1. Sample site 2, a fragment isolated by Beedle and Sharvelle on EVA37.

My sampling technique resulted in a fine white powder rather than discrete rock chips, which is not unexpected due to the exceptional softness of gypsum.

Sample site 3 (UTM 4251123N, 520283E) was not of particular biological importance, but I was curious about an aspect of the site, so I took a sample. Sample site 3 was Northeast facing and in deep shade. The rock contained stubbled veins of gypsum with regions of pure white or a dingier hue – almost green in the shade. I was interested in the small flecks of red that speckled the gypsum veins, and so I took a sample. We now believe that the red particles were mineral rather than biotic. As this stop was only a curiosity, no Way Point designation was made.

Sample site 4 (UTM 4251076N, 520375E) is potentially of great interest to future biological teams. Cuboidal veins of white (gypsum) shot through a shady, Northeast facing section of cliff at about head level (for me, probably chest level for everyone else). The layers of rock surrounding the veins are the most interesting feature of this location. There are sharp demarcations between sections of rock which are oxidized and sections which are reduced (see Fig. 2):

Fig. 2. In sample site 4, the boundary between the oxidized (upper, dark red), and reduced (middle, whitish-green) is dramatic. Gypsum (light brown/white) is present in veins in the oxidized section and in a rich chunk in the lower part of the formation.

The oxidation of iron results in rust (the common name for oxidized iron), and in fact these iron-rich deposits are a rich reddish-purple in the oxidized sections. Reduced regions are lighter in hue, almost white. Oxidation is simply the transfer of electrons from an electron-rich molecule (the oxidizing agent) to an electron-poor molecule (which becomes reduced). Species of iron-reducing bacteria have been characterized, and this formation poses interesting questions. Are the reduced regions a direct result of the activity of iron-reducing bacteria? Once the entire region is reduced, does the colony die, or does it move to the oxidized portion? Or, even more intriguingly, would it be possible to have iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing species living in an equilibrium on the same substrate? Perhaps future biologists will be able to address these questions here in Candor Chasma.

On a personal note, I enjoyed the walk through Candor Chasma immensely. Today was the first day that I observed a diversity of life beyond plant forms. In the canyon, we observed bees and butterflies. Lizards scurried out from underfoot, and a bird, unseen despite our best efforts, trilled its song in the sunlight – which we could hear even through our cooled helmets. Tracks were plentiful in the canyon – dogs, antelope, snakes – and we occasionally found bones scattered in the wash. I even spotted the exoskeleton of an insect dangling from the chasm wall. I’d known intellectually that life thrives even in these isolated regions of Utah, but to actually see and hear evidence of this life was moving. These simple life forms exist in this environment; with just a bit of responsible effort on our part, we can succeed even in the inhospitable climate of Mars.

March 21, 2002

MDRS Log Book

Björn Grieger Reporting

Time 2002.0321.0700

I am already awake. I stand up when the alarm clock rings at 0710. Today we are up a little bit earlier to complete an EVA before it gets too hot.

Time 2002.0321.0745

Breakfast. Today no bacon. We had enough of it the last days.

Time 2002.0321.0830

Preparation of EVA 41. We had thought that this is already a kind of routine for us, but after we forgot to put a disk in the digital camera yesterday, we put a new check list at the wall in the EVA preparation room.

EVA 41 is again targeted at Candor Chasma to take images of the sampling sites, which we did not accomplish yesterday.

Time 2002.0321.0911

EVA team 41, that is Erik and Jon, enters airlock.

Time 2002.0321.0916

Egression completed, EVA 41 departs to Candor Chasma.

Besides the usual housekeeping tasks and work on the overview documents we have to prepare, the morning passes by with organizing our way back into civilization. That should not be too difficult, but MDRS is at a really remote location. And without telephone the arrangements of transportation and hand over of the station to the next crew rotation has to be done by email. Although we shall be here for three more days, tasks related to the forthcoming crew shift begin to eat up a significant fraction of our time.

Tine 2002.0321.1342

EVA 41 back in airlock.

Time 2002.0321.1347

Regression completed.

We immediatly start the preparation of EVA 42, which is targeted towards a petrofied wook ridge to the east of the hab. It is in walking distance, but now that EVA 41 is back in time, EVA 42 will take the ATVs.

Time 2002.0321.1420

EVA 42, that is Nell and Sybil, enters airlock

Time 2002.0321.1450

The four of us remaining in the hab have Lunch/Coffee. By the side EVA 41 debriefing including voice recordings of the impressions is done.

Time 2002.0321.1530

Start, respcetively resume, working on actual reports and general documents.

Time 2002.0321.1546

EVA 42 is back in the airlock.

Time 2002.0321.1551

Regression completed.

When Nell and Sybil have just taken off their helmets, local visitors knock on the outer door of the airlock. It is an elderly couple who read about MDRS in the newspaper and got curious about what we do here. First I take care of them, when Nell has taken off her space suits she joins us and together we show the visitors around.

Time 2002.0321.1830

Dinner. This time we find do not find a suitable name for the dish. Not that it was bad, just ... our creativity seems to be used up at the moment.

After dinner, a really spacey discussion starts, about the colonization of Mars, of space in general, about the question wether each of us would be willing to really go to Mars if we had the opportunity. From what I have read about the other crews, all of their members would immediately take the opportunity to go on a Mars mission. But most of us would have to think about this and the decision would not be easy. We are aware of how demanding the participation in a Mars mission would be.

While the discussion continues among a changing subgroup, others return to working at the computers. Besides Nell's and my notebook, we have now also put the hab's notebook to operation, thus we have four working places.

Time 2002.0321.2155

Closing the log for today.

EVA 41 Report

Erik Carlstrom

EVA Scenario Overview

There were two objectives of today’s EVA. The primary objective was to get to Muddy Creek from the trail in the North Pinto Hills region and from there, to try to get as far west in Candor Chasma from the East. This would establish an ATV route through the East end of the canyon. The secondary objective was to return to the point where Tiffany Vora (Biologist) had collected a sample from a seepage point on EVA 40 and document the region with photos.

EVA Call Sign: EVA-41

DATE: 03-21-02

EVA Scenerio Exploration/

Observation

EVA HAB COMM (s) Tiffany Vora
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2
EVA CREW (Name/#) Carlstrom/4 Dory/5
EVA START TIME (PET): 0911 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual 1300/1347

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Today’s EVA had some interesting side routes. The main trails on the USGS maps are not always the clearest path in the field. For example, we took 2 wrong turns on our way to Candor Chasma. Once there, we went to Muddy Creek and took some pictures and then headed west along the wash towards Candor Chasma. We were able to navigate in the wash itself for the vast majority of the Canyon. There were some places where the wash wasn’t navigable by ATV, but we were able to drive just off to the side of the wash (in order to have the least amount of environmental impact). In Candor Chasma, we found many interesting rock samples, rock formations, and we revisited a seepage feature that Tiffany had discovered yesterday based on her descriptions and GPS coordinates.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal staging and suiting up.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Normal ingress and depress. Radio checks completed.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 0935 1040 1115 1315 1340
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION 4248338N

519946E

4249470N

521886E

425114N

523648E

REPORTED STATUS OK OK OK Returning Home Returning Home
Auxiliary Information Position

check

Position

check

Position

check

Text for EVA Monitoring:

Terrain in Candor Chasma prevented communication with the Hab.

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

Normal ingress and cleanup was done.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: The trail into the wash just East of Candor Chasma was on a very sandy surface, so the route we took was a little steeper than necessary. If there is time, we might be able to locate the actual path into the wash. The area was very interesting geologically, and there was direct and indirect evidence of subsurface water. I would suggest any future crew geophysicists to visit the region for interesting work. While in the region, both Jon and I noticed that the presence of water (flood, rain, etc.) would be extremely dangerous.

EVA MDRS1: Today’s EVA was a success. I was the designated navigator, being that I had visited the site yesterday during EVA 37. I was mostly successful in getting us there quickly and efficiently, as I only got us off track for about 5 minutes. Today was extremely hot, hotter than yesterday. Current outdoor temperature is 21.7C at local time 15:11. A cooling system for the suits should be implemented ASAP. We had issues with the camera today, as we forgot to bring the disk. Bjorn had brought his own camera, which we were able to use until the batteries ran out and we lost all data. We may want to consider making a very short checklist posted in the EVA room. Some reported that I drove the ATV like a "bat out of hell." However, I can assure all that I was completely safe.

EVA MDRS2: This region was very interesting to visit. There are clear signs of water here, both from rainwater/flash flood, and potential subsurface flow. The seepage that we noted (N 4251227, E 520203) was clear evidence of at least localized subsurface flow. Consequently, while not accurate for Mars, there is significant foliage and wildlife in this area. It is critical that future crews who explore in this area stick to the wash channel in order to minimize their impact there. Also, because the walls of the canyon are steep, future crews must not attempt to explore this area when there is any chance of precipitation because of the risk of flash flood.

Personally, I found this exercise to be a big confidence booster for the use of GPS systems. Using nothing but coordinates and general descriptions, we were able to find a very specific point of interest and complete our mission objectives as well as navigate previously unknown terrain. I believe that future Mars explorers will need some type GPS system of local orienteering system for performing similar work on Mars.

EVA 42 Report

Erik Carlstrom

EVA Scenario Overview

Today’s EVA objective was to visit Petrified Wood Ridge to confirm a hypothesis that a highly-visible, light-colored deposit is a fluvial channel.

EVA Call Sign: EVA-42

DATE: 03-21-02

EVA Scenerio Petrified Wood

Ridge

EVA HAB COMM (s) Vora
CDR MDRS1 MDRS2
EVA CREW (Name/#) Beedle/2 Sharvelle/3
EVA START TIME (PET): 1420 EVA STOP TIME: Scheduled/Actual 1551

EVA Highlights (EVA CDR)

Candor Chasma is a remarkable site for both biologists and geologists. I sampled four sites for possible halophilic bacteria. One of those sites (#1) included a water seep which caused varied salt formation in the rock overhang. Today was a clear day, and the sun made the bottom of the chasma rather hot. We moved among shady spots and liberally consumed our water. Sybil did an admirable job navigating to the chasma, and we entered in a slightly different location than was used on EVA37. Unfortunately, we were able to take no pictures, as one digital camera had no disk and Bjoern’s spy camera ran out of power. I guarantee that those mistakes will not be made by this crew again. During our return we spotted two indigenous organisms, a biped and a quadriped. Neither responded to our attempts at contact, but observed our movements.

PRE EVA OPERATIONS

Normal staging and suiting up.

AIRLOCK INGRESS/DEPRESS

Normal ingress and depress. Radio checks completed.

HAB EVA MONITORING

NOMINAL EVA COMM/SAFETY CHECK

(Hourly Operation)

Comm ck

1

Comm ck

2

Comm ck

3

Comm ck

4

Comm ck

5

Comm ck

6

TIME 1550
EVA #

(If Simultaneous EVAs)

ATV Odometer

OUT/IN

REPORTED MAP LOCATION Hab
REPORTED STATUS OK
Auxiliary Information Return from EVA

Text for EVA Monitoring:

The poor radio contact was surprising, particularly since we were in line-of-sight with the have while on the ridge.

POST EVA INGRESS AND CLEANUP

Normal ingess and cleanup.

EVA CREW: COMMENTS/OBSERVATIONS/LESSONS-LEARNED

EVA CDR: We started our EVA quite late in the day. Again, we experienced very warm internal EVA suit temperatures. I would strongly advise EVA teams from now on to plan their EVA between dawn and mid-day to avoid the working in the hottest part of the day.

Future crews may have fewer concerns about precipitation or the threat of flash-flood, but a new concern is dehydration and/or over-heating (heat exhaustion). Crews should carry appropriate water, re-hydration formula and be aware of how to treat team members suffering from heat exhaustion.

Additionally, it may soon be a priority to incorporate some type of sun protection into the EVA suit helmets.

EVA MDRS1: Today’s EVA was a success. I was the designated navigator, being that I had visited the site yesterday during EVA 37. I was mostly successful in getting us there quickly and efficiently, as I only got us off track for about 5 minutes. Today was extremely hot, hotter than yesterday. Current outdoor temperature is 21.7C at local time 15:11. A cooling system for the suits should be implemented ASAP. We had issues with the camera today, as we forgot to bring the disk. Bjorn had brought his own camera, which we were able to use until the batteries ran out and we lost all data. We may want to consider making a very short checklist posted in the EVA room. Some reported that I drove the ATV like a "bat out of hell." However, I can assure all that I was completely safe.

EVA MDRS2: Our EVA was quite short today and ran smoothly. The diversity of the geological conditions in this relatively small area once again amazed me. I did have failure of my microphone. This is the second day out on an EVA that I have experienced failure of communication equipment, which reiterates the importance of the buddy system.

Geology Report (EVA 37)

Stacy Sklar, Nell Beedle, Jonathan Dory

All positions are reported in NAD27 UTM Zone 12 (meters), with reference to the Skyline Rim Quadrangle (1:24,000).

We entered the main channel of Candor Chasma through a side-canyon, leaving the ATVs at 4251601N – 520188E. We had no communications with the Hab from this position.

The side-canyon walls are predominately gray-white (weathers tan) cross-bedded, medium to coarse-grained sandstone with interbeds of pebble conglomerate. This sandstone is the basal unit, locally, of the Morrison Formation. The conglomerate clasts are rounded, moderately to well-sorted and often clearly deposited in channels. The sandstone is the "cap rock", or resistant rock, along the canyon rim. In this area, the sandstone is approximately 5 meters thick. In many places, the canyon walls have been undercut by erosion, and large boulders of the cap rock have tumbled into the canyon.

Near the head of the side-canyon where we entered the system, we found an US General Land Survey benchmark from 1929 (4251254N – 520321E), which we are calling Waypoint 82. The benchmark demarks the section boundaries between R10E/R11E, and T27S/T28S. Even at this elevation, dropping into the canyon is tricky. However, there is a game trail running down into the canyon from the general vicinity of the benchmark.

Immediately upon entering the canyon, we encountered marine sedimentary rocks of the Summerville Formation. At Waypoint 83, we found a greenish-gray very fine-grained sandstone or siltstone (weathers reddish-orange) with extensive gypsum veining, with veins oriented predominately parallel to bedding. The gypsum in the veins often displays satin spar habit, and the veins are usually less than 2cm thick. At this locality (4251179N - 520303E), we observed a massive rock gypsum layer, ranging from 0.4m to 1.5m thick, cropping out near the base of the canyon wall. The gypsum is predominately white, but occasionally has a pinkish hue. We could follow this layer several hundred meters downstream along the main channel of the canyon, although it appears higher and higher on the walls as the canyon cuts down through the section.

Also near Waypoint 83 we observed a well-exposed, sandy (?) channel exposed in cross-section in the canyon wall. The channel crops out several meters above the canyon floor, and appears to be at least 1.5m thick.

As we walked down canyon, we encountered some interesting terrain. In one area, huge (5m diameter) boulders of the conglomeratic sandstone from the canyon rim litter the canyon floor. The canyon walls are undercut in many places, with good evidence of recent erosion (for example, intact ripple marks in the silty-sands on the canyon floor). Clearly, deeply undercut canyon walls occasionally collapse, depositing the sandstone and conglomerate cap rock onto the canyon floor. The canyon floor is often littered with cobbles of rock gypsum, which also indicates that while the canyon experiences episodes of erosive stream flow, the normal environment is arid enough to preserve the rock gypsum float.

We continued walking down-canyon to Waypoint 84 (4250879N - 520427E; elevation 1343m or 4406ft) where we observed a distinct boundary between red (oxidized, or deposited in an aerobic environment) siltstone, green (reduced, or deposited in an anaerobic environment) very fine-grained sandstone or siltstone, both overlying a massive, rock gypsum layer approximately 1m thick. The siltstones have common gypsum veining, with generally less than 1cm-thick veins oriented predominately parallel to bedding. This site is interesting for the abrupt transition (depositional?) between the siltstone types. It is interesting to note that these kinds of markers (oxidized vs. reduced sediments) may aid field geologists recreating depositional environments on Mars.

As we continued to walk down-stream encountered an "oasis" with several trees (possibly dormant) and green plants growing on the canyon floor. We took this as an indication that there may be water flowing along the main channel, below the sandy surface. This may be a good place to look for water flowing in subsurface channels.

Our southern-most waypoint is Waypoint 85, located at 4250876N – 520757E. At this site, we documented red siltstone beds with occasional, thin (less than 5cm thick) green siltstone interbeds. The red siltstone has laterally discontinuous depositions of massive, rock gypsum. The siltstone beds also have bedding-parallel gypsum veins, generally less than 2cm thick.

Looking down-canyon from Waypoint 85, one can see excellent exposures of the Summerville Formation marine sedimentary rocks. The nearly vertical canyon walls are 18m to 24m high, with the total topographic relief between the canyon floor and rim reaching nearly 35m.

Sybil Sharvelle rests her hand on thick (0.4m to 1.5m) gypsum layer visible in the upper-part of Candor Chasma.

Sybil Sharvelle stands just below a massive sandstone channel exposed in the canyon wall near the tope of the Summerville Formation (marine siltstones) in Candor Chasma.

Sybil kneels in front of an undercut section of the canyon wall, with well-preserved ripple marks at the base of the canyon wall at Waypoint 83; the undercut is approximately 1.5m to 2.m deep.

Photograph of the distinct, sharp contacts between red mudstone bed, green-gray very fine-grained sandstone or siltstone bed and a 1m-thick rock gypsum layer exposed in the Candor Chasma canyon wall at Waypoint 83. Divisions on the scale are 10cm.

Sybil stands on a debris apron approximately 10m above the floor of the main channel of Candor Chasma. In the background are the excellent exposures of the marine sediments of the Summerville Formation on the 24m-tall cliffs in the background. This photo is from the middle reaches of the main canyon, looking northward.

March 22, 2002

Engineering Report

Jonathan Dory & Sybil Sharvelle Reporting

Water Systems: The internal water tank has been filled to maximum. Because the external tank was nearly empty, we decided it would be best to pump as much water to the internal tank as possible, and then pour out the excess from the external tank, assuming that any contaminants would likely have settled to the bottom of the external tank. Unfortunately, in attempting to overfill the internal tank, some water overflowed and leaked down the outer shell of the hab through stateroom 5 on the upper deck and the washroom on the first level. It is estimated that the total spilt water was between 5-10 liters. The water was quickly cleaned up and is unlikely that there was any permanent damage to sheetrock or other structure as water quickly evaporates in the arid climate of MDRS.

Power and Fuel: The small fuel tanks were filled using the hand pump today. The large drums were filled by Lamont yesterday, so there is plenty of fuel to get crew 4 through at least the first week of their rotation.

EVA Equipment (including ATVs): The standard transmission ATV that needed its spark plug scraped earlier in the week is burning oil. It is recommended that all ATVs, that one in particular, have their oil checked before each EVA. There are several quarts of oil for the ATVs currently located in the main airlock.

Safety: Nothing to report.

Computers and Communications: Normal operation.

General Maintenance & Waste Management: It appears that the Biolet is getting very full and may be reaching capacity. It is difficult to know at this point if this will become a problem, though the device is reportedly designed to support a family of four through nominal use for six months. It may be that the addition of compost material earlier in the week accounts for the additional volume. Too, the aerobic/anaerobic bacteria that degrade the material may not yet have had the opportunity to become fully activated. The heater on the Biolet has been turned to maximum to activate them as much as possible, and it is recommended that later crew turn down heater if and when the level of material begins to decline.

The trash has been bagged and placed in the materials staging area as proposed in the MDRS manual prepared by Crew 2. There are a number of bags accumulating there, and it is recommended that Lamont pick this up on his next visit to avoid an over-accumulation.

Greenhouse: As has been previously reported, much damage occurred to the hab greenhouse during the windstorm that occurred last week. Information was requested from the GreenHab group regarding measurements of the door opening. The length of the door could not be accurately measured due to buckling of the greenhousewall (Fig. 1).

The width of the door is 98”. The old door was measured as 98.25” x 61.5”. Also, there is a patch above the door, spanning 18.5” above the top of the door opening. Many repairs need to be made aside from replacement of the door. The structure has collapsed in many areas creating gaps between the walls (Figure 2). The stake system that was originally intact did not work to keep the structure from moving around in the high winds. The buckets that these stakes were placed in have been forced out of the ground (Fig. 3).

Crew 3 retied the knots on the other stakes located around the greenhouse structure. If the greenhouse will be used during this field season, a more reliable staking system should be put in place to ensure that the structure is not damaged in high winds again. Additionally, there is a problem with the design of the greenhouse beds. They were designed so that the water should flow out of the system between the two beds on each side. However, sagging occurs in the beds, and water collects in the middle of each bed rather than flowing to the middle of the two beds (Figure 4). Other drainage alternatives, providing outflow from the sagging regions, should be considered.

Two Recipes

SPECK! (Feeds 6 adventure-weary space rangers)

  • 1/2 lb. Bacon
  • half an onion
  • 2 tsp black pepper
  • 5 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1/2 tsp paprika
  • 1 tsp dried basil
  • 1/2 tsp dried oregano
  • 1 large jar tomato sauce
  • 1 can peas
  • 1 and a half bags egg noodles
  • Fresh basil from the greenhouse

Cook bacon until crispy, then remove from pan. Discard half the bacon grease, then sauté the onions in the remainder (we know, we know. But we're on Mars, for crying out loud). Add pepper, garlic, paprika, dried basil, oregano and sauté until onions are soft. Add tomato sauce and peas, then shred fresh basil leaves, add, and warm through. Prepare the egg noodles. Combine sauce and noodles, add a bit more fresh basil, and serve.

Jonathan and Bjöern's Birthday Apple Bonanza

  • 5 to 6 medium apples (whatever type you have on hand), peeled, cored and quartered
  • half cup (1 stick) butter, cubed
  • half cup sugar
  • half to 1 cup maple syrup (more syrup means more juice!)
  • 1 to 2 tablespoons cinnamon
  • pinch salt
  • approximately 2 cups graham crakers, coarsely crumbled

Layer quartered apples in crockpot. Dot with cubed butter, then sprinkle with sugar and pinch salt. Pour syrup over the layers, then sprinkle the cinnamon over the top. Cook on high two hours, then on low until apples are soft but not limp. Serve apples onto plates or into bowls, then finish with a topping of crisp graham crakers. Makes a welcome desert when the chocolate has finally run out... a real bonanza!

March 23, 2002

Final Log Report

Björn Grieger Reporting

Time 2002.0322.0700

We, Crew3, began our Mars Desert Reserach Station rotation with a baptism by fire! But we feel our success clearly demonstrates that the right team of individuals can be successful in reaching their goals, even while operating in an extreme enviroment far from logistical support. We believe these things highlight what makes Crew3 unique:

BJÖERN GRIEGER, COMMANDER, PLANETARY SCIENTIST

My name is Björn Grieger; I am a physicist and work at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Germany in the Planetary Science Department. The main topic of my work is the preparation of data evaluation for the Huygens probe, that will descent into the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan in January 2005. Besides this, I am also involved in modeling long term climate changes on Mars.

Being born in 1961, I was very impressed when I saw Neil Armstrong walking on the moon in 1969, and my childhood dream was to become an astronaut. It has not completely become true, but I really appreciate how much I am involved in space exploration considering my work on planetary research, a cosmonaut training I obtained in Star City, Moscow, in 1997, and, of course, being at the Mars Desert Research Station in 2002. Having experienced how demanding it can be, I not sure if I really would like to be an astronaut myself, but I am pleased that I can contribute to the Mars Society's effort to pace mankind's way to space.

NELL BEEDLE, GEOLOGIST.

I'm very impressed that our crew, with our diverse backgrounds and experiences, were able to pull together as a team so that we could solve any problem, and have a great time doing it! As a field scientist, I was reminded that I've trained to use all five-senses while doing field work. Clearly, humans will have to make adjustments when exploring Mars where we can't expose ourselves to the hostile environment. I think the work at MDRS will contribute to developing new techniques for successful human exploration of Mars. But the real joy will be in walking up to a rock that has been remotely, digitally mapped at very high resolution from Earth, and simply picking it up and turning it over to see what's underneath!

ERIK CARLSTROM, GEOPHYSICIST

I have done planetary science, optical oceanography, and geophysical research and spent a short stint in the military. I feel that I have never gotten along with a group of people this size so quickly before in my life. I feel that we all have strong personalities and opinions, but we have amazingly been able to mesh these into a coherent working group. Our diverse backgrounds have allowed us to come even closer together than I thought was possible. I feel that I have bonded with my fellow crewmembers to the point that I have found new people that will be my friends for a long time to come. I think that this experience is important in the endeavor to send humans to Mars, because it tells me that the right crew can go through hardship and problems together yet stay close during the duration of the mission.

JONATHAN DORY, SPACE HABITATION ENGINEER

I work as a Human Factors Analyst for SPACEHAB Inc. at the Johnson Space Center. I support NASA by planning the internal layout and configuration of systems, payloads, and hardware to accommodate operations and habitability onboard the International Space Station. Naturally, my interest in the MDRS program has been to better understand how humans live and work in an enclosed volume with specific objectives; how do people share one small habitat in which they must perform science, prepare meals, sleep, and perform all of the routines of daily life? One of the greatest lessons that I'll take out of this program is how important it is to prepare for a mission as complex as a long duration stay on Mars in an integrated fashion like at MDRS. It is not enough to simply study humans in enclosed environments, performing field science, or operating payloads. The difficulty comes in determining the conflicts between these operations in the real working environment. While humans can adapt to just about any environment for a short period, it is critical that a long duration space habitat be designed to accommodate the needs of the crew, both for morale and productivity.

SYBIL SHARVELLE, GRADUTE STUDENT, CIVIL ENGINEERING, CU BOULDER

As I sat in the "living room" of the hab, trying to recollect my thoughts to write this summary, I found it difficult to concentrate because I was too busy enjoying my time with my crewmates. I went into my stateroom to get some privacy and concentrate and the first thing I remembered was the skepticism I had about coming here. Living in an enclosed environment with 5 other people in the middle of Nowhere, Utah, did not exactly sound fun. I could not have been more wrong. Not only has this been the most fun experience I've had in the last year, but also the most valuable. This environment has worked very well for a Mars simulation, both in the sense of a living environment and a physical environment that looks and feels alien and like Mars. The most important and rewarding part of this experience is having worked with an extremely diverse and multidisciplinary group of people to put all of our knowledge together for the goal of understanding and overcoming the hurdles it will take to send humans to Mars.

TIFFANY VORA - GRADUATE STUDENT, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY.

I will always carry the memory of cresting Hab Ridge on pedestrian EVA with a media crew. I shuffled up the hill, keeping a sharp eye on my path for sinkholes. The path leveled out, I lifted my eyes ... and gazed across an expanse of mounds stretching to the horizon. My companions vanished; I was transported to the top of a grand desolate world. I surveyed the red and purple hills to the whir of my pack fan. This was not my home, my Earth; this was Mars, a land to explore, understand, and perhaps even shape to our needs. Suddenly I was aware of my companions, and my vision of Mars vanished. I was once again a member of a team, one of many who share a dream. I have journeyed far and still have far to go. We all do. But our feet are on the path, and with perseverance, vision, and yes, fun, we will succeed in our lifetimes. There will be humans on Mars, and we will have contributed to the triumph.

STACY SKLAR, GEOCHEMIST

I am a geochemistry student currently attending NAU (Northern Arizona University) and aspire to be a Mars Vulcanologist. I am active with the Mars Desert Research Station with Logistics, Exploration, and Research. In my spare time I am an avid outdoorswomen. My experience at the MDRS was incredible, learning about the geological processes occurring in this area and imaging that these processes could possible occur on Mars as well as in simulation was the next best thing to actually being on Mars! However, it was the Human Factors issue that leaves the best impression on me. The bonding that occurred between my crewmembers and myself was remarkable. Within a day of meeting each other we realized that in order not only to do basic fieldwork but for survival as well, we must work as a team. Due to a rather unexpected wind storm damage to the hab as well as our generator tripping on/off several times we learned to "work the problem" and most of all laugh about the situation.

Final Biology Report

Tiffany Vora Reporting

This document is a summary of the research I've conducted during the third crew rotation of the Mars Desert Research Station. While at MDRS, I experimented with culturing techniques, fluorescent staining, Gram staining, wet mounts, and stereoscopic microscopy. I will conclude with my observations and suggestions for biological research both here at MDRS and on an actual manned Mars mission.

My research goals were as follows:

The biology lab at MDRS now has culturing capabilities, largely due to the donation of an incubator to the Mars Society by the good folks at Princeton. The incubator is in cabinet form with two racks - shaking is not possible with the incubator in its present form. It holds temperature satisfactorily, and I believe it could be set as high as 45 or 50 degrees C. I used a temperature of 32-37 degrees C for all my culturing work based on my experience with E. coli. Higher temperatures are not advisable for several reasons, including the fact that agar plates would melt at temperatures higher than 50 degrees C. Basic culturing materials are present - "sterile" water (see below), yeast extract, salt (not chemistry or molecular biology grade, but food grade), inoculating loops, pipets and tips. There is no agar to pour plates, nor petri dishes, but until the sterility problem is addressed, I don't believe that full-scale media preparation is viable. A small number of parafilmed plates can be found in the lab refrigerator. Those labeled "LB" are the standard Luria Broth plates used for basic culturing. Those plates labeled "HS" are the high-salt plates prepared according to the DSM97 Halobacterial Media recipe (can be found in the "Biology Literature" file in the bio lab). The balance is probably in need of calibration, but I have been using it to create at least relative salt gradients for 1 mL liquid cultures. I have included an article on the cultivation of Halophilic Archaea in the "Biology Literature" file in the bio lab.

I found myself concentrating on the culturing of putative halophiles due to the presence of contaminating Gram-positive bacteria in low salt cultures. I am confident these microbes are contamination because they grew in my standard negative controls. However, a salt concentration of 0.5M is sufficient to eliminate the contamination (see Table 1). I used turbidity as a marker of growth with some reservation, as high salt concentrations contributed to turbidity. I was unable to determine the previous crews' criteria for microbial growth - it seemed that samples were labeled "Halophilic" based on the presence of salt rather than on the confirmed presence of bacterial life. If I use the ability to create a high-salt viable culture as my criterion for presence of halophiles, I am reluctant to positively identify any sampling locations as definitive environments for halophilic communities. However, I believe several locations have potential, and I recommend maintaining some cultures in the incubator for longer periods of time to give the cells a chance to grow. These cultures are marked with ** in Table 1 and are presently in the incubator. Once the cultures are established, they can be frozen and transported to full-scale laboratories for further analysis, such as basic molecular characterization based on the 16S ribosomal subunit.

Sample Date [NaCl] (Molar) Growth?
Gypsum Alone 12-Mar 4.27 No
**Green Gypsum 12-Mar 4.27 Possible cells
**EVA27:Hypolith 13-Mar 4.27 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
**EVA30A:3 15-Mar 4.27 Turbid - cells?
**EVA30A:10 15-Mar 4.27 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
Negative Control 17-Mar 0 Yes
Negative Control 17-Mar 0.5 No
Negative Control 17-Mar 1 No
Negative Control 17-Mar 2 No
Negative Control 17-Mar 3 No
Negative Control 17-Mar 4 No
Negative Control 17-Mar 4.5 No
EVA34:1 18-Mar 4.27 No
EVA34:2 18-Mar 4.27 No
**EVA34:3 18-Mar 4.27 Turbid, prob. Not cells
**EVA40:1 20-Mar 1 Turbid - cells?
EVA40:1 20-Mar 2 No
**EVA40:1 20-Mar 3 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
**EVA40:1 20-Mar 4 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
EVA40:1 20-Mar 4.5 No
EVA40:2 20-Mar 1 No
EVA40:2 20-Mar 2 No
**EVA40:2 20-Mar 3 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
**EVA40:2 20-Mar 4 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
**EVA40:2 20-Mar 4.5 Lt. Turbid, possibly cell.
EVA40:3 20-Mar 0.5 No
EVA40:3 20-Mar 1 No
EVA40:3 20-Mar 2 No
EVA40:3 20-Mar 3 No
**EVA40:3 20-Mar 4 Turbid, prob. Not cells
EVA40:3 20-Mar 4.5 No
**EVA40:4 20-Mar 1 Turbid, prob. Not cells
EVA40:4 20-Mar 2 No
EVA40:4 20-Mar 3 No
EVA40:4 20-Mar 4 No
**EVA40:4 20-Mar 4.5 Turbid, prob. Not cells
Table 1. A partial summary of culture attempts as of 3/23/02.
** Culture has been retained for longer-term incubation.

My second research goal for this rotation was to establish a protocol for basic live/dead counts in samples collected from the field. My protocol was designed in conjunction with Dr. James Hall at Princeton University based on the principles of the Molecular Probes Live/Dead Viability Kits (product information in the "Biology Literature" file). On March 12, I performed a live cell assay using a combination of Syto9 and propidium iodide. Both of these chemicals are fluorescent and specifically stain double-stranded DNA. However, the staining properties differ in the types of cells that can be stained. Syto-9 must be actively taken up by the cell and thus only live cells will fluoresce green. Propidium iodide, on the other hand, can only enter the cell via damaged regions of the outer membrane/cell wall; dead cells should pick up the propidium iodide and fluoresce red. This analysis is difficult under hab bio lab conditions for several reasons. First, the downstairs windows are not sealed and it is impossible to obscure all background light (to prevent bleaching of the fluorophore). Second, even if the analyses are performed at night (as on 3/18), light from upstairs falls directly on the fluorescent microscope. Third, using the digital camera to shoot through the ocular of the microscope does not produce images that can be analyzed. Fourth, there is no "bio freezer," so storage of the fluorophores at the recommended temperature is just about impossible. It is my recommendation that sensitive fluorescence assays be postponed until the bio lab windows can be sealed and darkened and a separator (possibly temporary) can be erected to block off the lab portion from the upstairs portion of the hab (primarily for light pollution).

Gram-staining is an excellent technique for visualization and primary characterization of microbial life. We currently have the reagents and protocols necessary to perform quality Gram stains. The presence of Gram-positive contamination is worrisome but will not be prohibitive once sterilization techniques are developed (see below).

Wet mounts are useful for visualizing cells in an undisrupted state. On March 18 I observed cells that appeared to be motile in excess of Brownian motion. A higher-magnification objective would be useful for these analyses. Currently the 100x objective is the highest magnification available, but as there is room in the scope for another objective, I have hope for future donations.

Stereoscopic microscopy has limited usefulness for microbial studies. I used the stereoscope to examine salt structures and rock surfaces for porosity that could have been caused by microbes. I also used the stereoscope for the gross anatomical study that I did on the "Martian" plant - the Desert Trumpet (3/15/02). I do believe that the stereoscope is a good addition to the hab's laboratory, as it can be utilized by both biologists and geologists for gross sample studies. Observations and Conclusions

The biology lab at MDRS is suitable for basic field microbiological and gross-specimen analyses. However, there are some major areas that could be improved, both for MDRS and for actual manned Mars missions.

1.Contamination. I cannot overemphasize the need for sterilization procedures for sampling, hab egress/ingress, and laboratory analysis.

a) Cross-contamination in the field while sampling. If the samples are not kept "sterile" - that is, not lifeless but containing only the life endogenous to that particular sample - then subsequent sterilization techniques are worthless and conclusions about life in individual sites are invalid. I felt it was unsafe to flame my tools while in the spacesuit; perhaps      some kind of radiation-sterilization device can be developed for field work both here and on Mars (it would have to be small, with very large buttons).

b) Contamination of the hab and/or the outside environment during hab egress/ingress. I feel it would be extremely irresponsible to design research missions that lack a way to sterilize field suits and tools (but not samples, otherwise biotic material would be destroyed) during egress and ingress. Science-fiction writers have had a fascination with the possibility of endogenous pathogens having a severe effect on a crew. While this is certainly a serious concern, we must also ensure that no Earth organisms have any chance of being loosed in the Martian environment. Until we have had thorough opportunity to examine Mars in its native state (I picture several hundred years), contaminating Mars is as severe an issue as contaminating the Hab or the Earth itself.

c) Contamination of the hab and crew during laboratory analysis. Putative biological samples must be kept alive during the procedure that sterilizes the suits and tools used on EVA. However, once the samples are in the laboratory, every precaution must be taken to ensure that organisms are not disseminated throughout the hab. Simple precautions, such as hand-washing, not taking samples out of the lab, a closed air circuit, and a way of sealing off the lab will go a long way toward tackling this problem.

d) Contamination of samples during laboratory analysis. I struggled with contamination during my rotation, so I advocate adding equipment to the lab to deal with this problem. An autoclave seems an improbable addition, as they are large, heavy, expensive, and require a good deal of water and power. However, they cannot be beat for thoroughness of sterilization. An autoclave on-site would allow recycling of tools and minimize the amount of materials such as media that currently have to be brought in. A biosafety cabinet or glove box would be useful to minimize contamination originating with the researcher; it would also protect the researcher during the manipulation of samples.

2.Sample storage. Our current "method" of storing samples is inadequate for thorough laboratory analyses. A freezer devoted entirely to biological samples must be provided before coherent sample storage can be attempted. Furthermore, this freezer must consistently hold a temperature of at least -20 degrees C, even during power failure, while a steady of temperature of -80 degrees C would be optimal. No coherent system of naming and storing samples exists. My experience has been that I hardly have adequate time to analyze my own samples, let alone the samples that have been piled up in the refrigerator. Any samples stored should have documentation citing exactly what analyses have been performed (including protocols) and what analyses are recommended for future researches (again, including protocols). I believe that any samples obtained by the researcher should be taken home by the researcher for further analysis, unless transport would destroy the sample. I intend to leave a few cultures for further growth, since I cannot keep them warm during transport and I cannot freeze them and keep them frozen. These tubes are clearly labeled and have been described elsewhere in this report.

   3.Scientific continuity. Communication among the biologists of all crews is necessary to create a consistent research plan,

     and to avoid "junking" of samples that should be saved. During the planning of real manned Mars missions, I envision

     that members of all crews intimately know each other and have plenty of opportunity to devise research plans. Please see

     the Crew 3 Evaluation for a thorough discussion of this point. I have been in communication with the Crew 4 biologist, and

     I hope I have prepared her somewhat for the state of the lab. I also intend to leave a letter to the Crew 4 biologist, with a

     quick guide to the lab and the name of this file so she can read my conclusions.

   4.Future equipment acquisitions. Elsewhere in this document I have recommended the acquisition of an autoclave,

     biosafety cabinet/glove box, sterilization tools, additional microscope objectives, microscope-specific digital cameras, and

     a way of sealing off the bio lab. Previous crews have recommended obtaining a gel box, DNA/RNA/protein kits, etc, for

     DNA studies. I disagree; until excellent sterilization procedures have been developed, I don't believe that molecular

     studies can be carried out with any confidence. This is one reason I believe researchers should take their samples home. A

     field lab is not designed to do in-depth studies, and I imagine that Mars scientists will not be carrying out molecular

     studies while on Mars. I expect that Martian samples would be brought back to Earth and handed over to the researcher(s)

     best prepared to analyze them in terms of experience, equipment, funding and manpower. Why send your best scientists

     to Mars, when the best scientists can be at home for support and eventual analysis? Here at MDRS, we need

     reagent-grade salt and other chemicals, including media components. We could also use a way to dispose of chemicals

     and biohazardous materials in a responsible fashion.

The Mars Desert Research Station has the potential to produce some quality biological samples. With development of techniques for sterilization and analysis, and coherent methods of reporting on and storing samples, I am confident that the Mars Society can attract the attention and sponsorship of biologists around the world. Quality biology can be accomplished in the future with just a little effort on our parts now.