Environmental conditions

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The Environmental conditions on Mars are different from those of Earth. Human beings can not live there without technical systems. Unless successful terraforming can be performed, Martian settlers are bound to artificial habitats.


The temperatures on the Martian surface is much lower than on Earth.

  • Average atmosphere temperature: -63 °C
  • Diurnal temperature range: -89 °C to -31 °C (Viking 1 Lander site)
  • Minimum: −125 °C near the poles in winter
  • Maximum: 20 °C near the equator

Atmosphere pressure

The Martian atmosphere has one hundreth of Earth's atmospheric density and seven thousandths of Earth's atmospheric pressure. The pressure varies considerably from day to day, from season to season, and from place to place on Mars. For practical purposes when designing pressure vessels to maintain life supporting conditions on Mars it is sufficient to estimate the Martian atmospheric pressure as zero.

Wind speed (Viking Lander sites)

Open issues

  • Is there a potential threat from dust devils?

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