Difference between revisions of "Mining"

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'''Mining''' is the process of fetching natural [[raw materials|raw material]] from below the [[Mars|Martian]] surface for further processing. The fetched raw materials are frozen [[water]], [[minerals]] and [[ore]].
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[[File:Mine tile.JPG|right|frameless|61x61px|link=Create a settlement]]
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[[File:Roadheader and truck.jpg|thumb|500x500px|A roadheader digs into a regolith cliff and feeds an automated truck.]]'''Mining''' is the process of collecting raw materials from the Martian [[natural resources]] for further processing. The raw materials extracted from the martian surface are frozen [[water]], [[minerals]] and [[ore]].  The thin [[atmosphere]] can be exploited for resources by [[Atmospheric processing|atmospheric mining]].
  
Connie:  Your absolutely right, that's Brad Dourif. He peayld Gredma Wormtongue in The Two Towers, and Saavedro in Myst III.-Trekluver: It's good that it answered all your questions, that's what the books were released for.  I haven't read BotA, or BotT recently, but I remember that they were really great books.  And that's coming from somebody who has had every author I ever start reading eventually ending up on a best authors listIt was funny, I just picked these authors, loved them, and 5 of them end up on a best fantasy authors of all time list( don't remember by who).  Robert Jordan, Stephen Donaldson, Tolken, Marion Zimmer Bradley, and.. (hmm, I can't remeber the other name).If you like the kind of epic tales in the Myst books, or if you like Fantasy in general, Those authors are a MUST read.  Would also reccomend Jim Butcher, Brandon Sanderson, Orson Scott Card, and Simon Green.I read a lot of books (typically at least two a month) and I can tell you that these authors are extremely talented./end rant
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==Technology==
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Mining is an [[energy]] consuming activity. Due to the hostile environment, the [[digging machine]]s are expected to be [[automation|automated]], or be remote controlledHowever, in-situ resources are almost always less expensive than resources imported from Earth.
  
> but then the Moon is airless and that would limit ruanawy replicators.Lack of air means that it couldn't spread by air.  True.  Good point.  But what do you think about the likelihood of a replicator (reproducer):  1)  leaving the Earth,  2)  surviving transit to the Moon vs Mars, 3)  burning up in the martian atmosphere vs burning by a hard impact on the Moon  4)  surviving long enough to get into a habitatOK, I feel like I'm speculating well beyond my pay grade here but here goes 1)  Leaving Earth  If the replicator was a chemical then I could imagine one of them being blown to a high altitude and then being blown into space by frequent, high-altitude meteor strikes. If it was a nanodevice even at the massive weight of a dust particle, I still think that it could be blown to a high altitude.  So I'm guessing that it wouldn't take too long before either would leave the Earth.2)  Surviving Transit  Mars is a lot further away and so solar radiation would have a much longer time to sterilize the replicator.  I'm guessing that a single strike by a solar proton would destroy either a chemical or a nanodevice.  Furthermore, the orbit of the replicator could only? be changed by the solar wind but the solar wind would destroy the replicator, yes?  Certain bacteria survive in space but I think that the reason for this is that one solar proton doesn't necessarily kill the bacteria and bacteria has repair mechanisms which, presumably, a chemical or nanodevice wouldn't have.  If the replicator were in a piece of rock blown up by an asteroid then it could well survive in space.  But, I'm guessing that rocks being blown off Earth to escape velocity happens maybe once every 100? years (e.g. Tunguska-level ground strike).  So, it seems to me that transit survival is hard to achieve.  But, if possible 3)  Atmospheric vs Ground Impact  Impacting the lunar surface would deliver the energy over a shorter period of time than through the atmosphere.  Again, it seems as though free-floating replicators (whether chemical or nanodevice) would reliably be destroyed either way.  Again, only a replicator in an ejected piece of Earth would survive either.4)  Surviving Long Enough to Get Into a Habitat  This is particularly interesting.  IF we establish a self-sustaining off-Earth colony before replicators are created then we have the protections of 1), 2), and 3).  But if we were to only have an underground Earth bunker then leaving the Earth without carrying contamination would, in my opinion, be almost impossible.If we already had a self-sustaining off-Earth colony when replicators were created on Earth, then I would imaging that it would be at least years (maybe decades, centuries, or never)  before the replicator made its way to the Moon or Mars.  If it were to survive after reentry (Mars) or impact (Moon) then I think it would be iffy but possible that it could replicate on Mars and could easily spread by the wind.  But I think that it would go nowhere on the Moon.My Conclusion  Prudence dictates that we establish an off-Earth colony, really, ASAP.  I still believe that a self-sustaining colony can be more quickly established on the Moon than Mars.  It seems to me that most people agree that a lunar base can be established quicker, safer, more cheaply (even taking aerobraking into account).  I would go a second step and say that the relative resource deficiency of the Moon vs Mars (e.g. carbon & nitrogen, volatiles only at the poles) can be overcome faster than a martian effort.  Just my current understanding.
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==Surface Mining Methods==
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===Strip Mining===
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When resources are available close to the surface, a strip mine is the most efficient method of extraction. The layers of [[regolith]] covering the resource are taken away, and the exposed ore is mined. This method is also called open-pit mining, or regolith harvesting, depending on the depth of the work.
  
 
==Subsurface Mining Methods==
 
==Subsurface Mining Methods==
When the natural resource lies far underground, it is far more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth<ref> McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527 </ref> people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure.  This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than 5 miles.  There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other.
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When the natural resource lies far underground, it is more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth<ref>McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527 </ref> people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on Earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure.  This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than seven kilometers.  There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other.
I think it's a good thing to keep busy  as long as you aren't too busy for family and grief. I breuid myself in my work after my son died 25 years ago at age 16.  I kept so busy that I did not face my grief  did not deal with it.  I did not allow myself to cry or mourn.  Then 5 years ago my husband was stabbed by a poacher on our property after dark and left for dead. They called in a helicopter (due to how far we life out in the boonies) for my husband, just as they had for my son.  When that helicopter took off and I was alone in the dark    my son's death came slamming back into me full-force.  Due to miracle after miracle, my husband survived.  But  It's taken me these last 5 years to deal with my delayed grief.  Trust me  there isn't anyone around anymore who understands your grief  25 years late.  Just do not put off your mourning, but keep busy.  Janet Macy
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===Drift Mines===
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Drift mining consists of primarily horizontal tunnels. These are most often dug into a hillside.
  
 
===Slope Mining===
 
===Slope Mining===
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===Shaft Mining===
 
===Shaft Mining===
Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining.
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Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining.  The shaft is often provide with an elevator system and used to access extended horizontal galleries.
  
 
===Room and Pillar Mining===
 
===Room and Pillar Mining===
In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the celing. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.
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In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the ceiling. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.
  
 
===Longwall Mining===
 
===Longwall Mining===
Longwall mining begins with a long horizontal shaft. The roof is held up mechanically by moveable supports. One side of the shaft is mined along its entire length. As this mine progresses, the mechanical supports move foreward with the face. The old area of the mine is left unsupported, and allowed to collapse under its own weight, often leading to surface subsidence.
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Longwall mining begins with a long horizontal shaft. The roof is held up mechanically by moveable supports. One side of the shaft is mined along its entire length. As this mine progresses, the mechanical supports move forward with the face. The old area of the mine is left unsupported, and allowed to collapse under its own weight, often leading to surface subsidence.
  
Storage Hong Kong Mini StorageIncreasingly frequent cotoerapion between Hong Kong and the Mainland ,  has the central government to submit documents for the function of the co- orientation written into the  12 • 5  plan years, and supporting the consolidation of our economic and trade and shipping center.Mr Lam stressed that the framework for the Hong Kong-Guangdong co-operation into the  12 • 5  layout, is to ensure that Hong Kong  s leading position , to avoid duplication of Hong Kong and Guangdong Province , vicious competition. Logistics industry welcomed the Government's approach . Development  opportunities for national planning and Hong Kong  symposium . Stressed in his speech , the Chief Executive in ○ ○ seven to eight years of policy reports have shown that support to the nation's  12 • 5  planning , he personally led a delegation to visit Beijing on three occasions , with the Development and Reform Commission to discuss how to meet the central development of Hong Kong .Lin refers to the Central Government has already submitted documents , the file mentioned in the three focus , first, that the Central Government support to consolidate Hong Kong trade and shipping center ; the second is the  Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement  , the further To make our professional services into the Mainland ; third is to positioning the co- written into the  12 • 5  planning.The SCA early to Fuzhou , the nine provinces in the Mainland Development Conference held in the Pan- Pearl River Delta , the Pan- Pearl River Delta nine provinces have agreed to jointly fight for the Pan- PRD co-operation into the  12 • 5  planning.Hong Kong  Logistics Association Chairman Mr Steve Welcome to the Central Government to fight , to consolidate Hong Kong's shipping center, he refers to Hong Kong and Mainland ports is highly competitive and , if able to control parts of the mainland terminal, the logistics industry in Hong Kong must have help .But he also hopes the Government will increase the container terminal logistics sites , such as parking , loading area , or else the industry does not have enough local business , can not improve throughput .Sponsored seminar Hong Kong storage by the mainland over the past three decades of reform and opening up of rapid economic development; how to make the economic division of the Pearl River Delta and other places , is our biggest challenge over the next three years .Mr Lam stressed that the framework for the Hong Kong-Guangdong co-operation into the  12 • 5  layout, is to ensure that Hong Kong  s leading position , to avoid duplication of Hong Kong and Guangdong Province , vicious competition. Logistics industry welcomed the Government's approach .Lin refers to the Central Government has already submitted documents , the file mentioned in the three focus , first, that the Central Government support to consolidate Hong Kong trade and shipping center ; the second is the  Mainland and Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement  , the further To make our professional services into the Mainland ; third is to positioning the co- written into the  12 • 5  planning.The SCA early to Fuzhou , the nine provinces in the Mainland Development Conference held in the Pan- Pearl River Delta , the Pan- Pearl River Delta nine provinces have agreed to jointly fight for the Pan- PRD co-operation into the  12 • 5  planning.Hong Kong Logistics Association Chairman Mr Steve Welcome to the Central Government to fight , to consolidate Hong Kong's shipping center, he refers to Hong Kong and Mainland ports is highly competitive and , if able to control parts of the mainland terminal, the logistics industry in Hong Kong must have help .But he also hopes the Government will increase the container terminal logistics sites , such as parking , loading area  of , or else the industry does not have enough local business , can not improve throughput .
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==Secondary use for mining galleries==
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[[File:Tunnel and digger.jpg|thumb|450x450px|Before and after image of a tunnel settlement.]]
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The [[artificial cave]]s created by mining can be a valuable side effect of subsurface mining. They can be used to expand the [[settlement]] with storage rooms, [[house|living rooms]], underground [[greenhouse]]s, gas container for [[energy storage]] or for storage of [[:category:chemistry|chemicals]].
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==See also==
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*[[Atmospheric processing]]
  
 
==Reference==
 
==Reference==
<references/>
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<references />
  
[[category: technology]]
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[[Category:Mining and Refining]]
[[category: geology]]
 
[[category: material]]
 

Latest revision as of 09:06, 2 August 2019

Mine tile.JPG
A roadheader digs into a regolith cliff and feeds an automated truck.

Mining is the process of collecting raw materials from the Martian natural resources for further processing. The raw materials extracted from the martian surface are frozen water, minerals and ore. The thin atmosphere can be exploited for resources by atmospheric mining.

Technology

Mining is an energy consuming activity. Due to the hostile environment, the digging machines are expected to be automated, or be remote controlled. However, in-situ resources are almost always less expensive than resources imported from Earth.

Surface Mining Methods

Strip Mining

When resources are available close to the surface, a strip mine is the most efficient method of extraction. The layers of regolith covering the resource are taken away, and the exposed ore is mined. This method is also called open-pit mining, or regolith harvesting, depending on the depth of the work.

Subsurface Mining Methods

When the natural resource lies far underground, it is more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth[1] people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on Earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure. This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than seven kilometers. There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other.

Drift Mines

Drift mining consists of primarily horizontal tunnels. These are most often dug into a hillside.

Slope Mining

Slope mining uses diagonal tunnels to access ore.

Shaft Mining

Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining. The shaft is often provide with an elevator system and used to access extended horizontal galleries.

Room and Pillar Mining

In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the ceiling. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.

Longwall Mining

Longwall mining begins with a long horizontal shaft. The roof is held up mechanically by moveable supports. One side of the shaft is mined along its entire length. As this mine progresses, the mechanical supports move forward with the face. The old area of the mine is left unsupported, and allowed to collapse under its own weight, often leading to surface subsidence.

Secondary use for mining galleries

Before and after image of a tunnel settlement.

The artificial caves created by mining can be a valuable side effect of subsurface mining. They can be used to expand the settlement with storage rooms, living rooms, underground greenhouses, gas container for energy storage or for storage of chemicals.

See also

Reference

  1. McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527