Difference between revisions of "Mining"

From Marspedia
Jump to: navigation, search
m (multiple vandalisms)
 
(17 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
'''Mining''' is the process of fetching natural [[raw materials|raw material]] from below the [[Mars|Martian]] surface for further processing. The fetched raw materials are frozen [[water]], [[minerals]] and [[ore]].
+
[[File:Mine tile.JPG|right|frameless|61x61px|link=Create a settlement]]
 +
[[File:Roadheader and truck.jpg|thumb|500x500px|A roadheader digs into a regolith cliff and feeds an automated truck.]]'''Mining''' is the process of collecting raw materials from the Martian [[natural resources]] for further processing. The raw materials extracted from the martian surface are frozen [[water]], [[minerals]] and [[ore]].  The thin [[atmosphere]] can be exploited for resources by [[Atmospheric processing|atmospheric mining]].
  
 
==Technology==
 
==Technology==
Mining is an [[energy]] consuming job. Due to the thin [[atmosphere]] the [[digging machine]]s are supposed to work [[automation|automated]] or remote controlled.
+
Mining is an [[energy]] consuming activity. Due to the hostile environment, the [[digging machine]]s are expected to be [[automation|automated]], or be remote controlled.  However, in-situ resources are almost always less expensive than resources imported from Earth.
  
 
==Surface Mining Methods==
 
==Surface Mining Methods==
 
===Strip Mining===
 
===Strip Mining===
When resources are available close to the surface, a strip mine is the most efficient method of extraction. The layers of [[regolith]] covering the resource are taken away, and the exposed ore is mined. This method is also called open-pit mining.
+
When resources are available close to the surface, a strip mine is the most efficient method of extraction. The layers of [[regolith]] covering the resource are taken away, and the exposed ore is mined. This method is also called open-pit mining, or regolith harvesting, depending on the depth of the work.
  
 
==Subsurface Mining Methods==
 
==Subsurface Mining Methods==
When the natural resource lies far underground, it is far more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth<ref> McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527 </ref> people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure.  This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than 5 miles.  There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other.
+
When the natural resource lies far underground, it is more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth<ref>McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527 </ref> people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on Earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure.  This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than seven kilometers.  There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other.
 
===Drift Mines===
 
===Drift Mines===
 
Drift mining consists of primarily horizontal tunnels. These are most often dug into a hillside.
 
Drift mining consists of primarily horizontal tunnels. These are most often dug into a hillside.
Line 17: Line 18:
  
 
===Shaft Mining===
 
===Shaft Mining===
Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining.
+
Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining.  The shaft is often provide with an elevator system and used to access extended horizontal galleries.
  
 
===Room and Pillar Mining===
 
===Room and Pillar Mining===
In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the celing. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.
+
In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the ceiling. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.
  
 
===Longwall Mining===
 
===Longwall Mining===
Longwall mining begins with a long horizontal shaft. The roof is held up mechanically by moveable supports. One side of the shaft is mined along its entire length. As this mine progresses, the mechanical supports move foreward with the face. The old area of the mine is left unsupported, and allowed to collapse under its own weight, often leading to surface subsidence.
+
Longwall mining begins with a long horizontal shaft. The roof is held up mechanically by moveable supports. One side of the shaft is mined along its entire length. As this mine progresses, the mechanical supports move forward with the face. The old area of the mine is left unsupported, and allowed to collapse under its own weight, often leading to surface subsidence.
  
==Emerging galleries==
+
==Secondary use for mining galleries==
The [[artificial cave]]s are a nice side effect. They can be used to expand the [[settlement]] with storage rooms, [[house|living rooms]], underground [[greenhouse]]s, gas container for [[energy storage]] or storage of [[:category:chemistry|chemicals]].
+
[[File:Tunnel and digger.jpg|thumb|450x450px|Before and after image of a tunnel settlement.]]
 +
The [[artificial cave]]s created by mining can be a valuable side effect of subsurface mining. They can be used to expand the [[settlement]] with storage rooms, [[house|living rooms]], underground [[greenhouse]]s, gas container for [[energy storage]] or for storage of [[:category:chemistry|chemicals]].
 +
 
 +
==See also==
 +
 
 +
*[[Atmospheric processing]]
  
 
==Reference==
 
==Reference==
<references/>
+
<references />
  
[[category: technology]]
+
[[Category:Mining and Refining]]
[[category: geology]]
 
[[category: material]]
 

Latest revision as of 08:06, 2 August 2019

Mine tile.JPG
A roadheader digs into a regolith cliff and feeds an automated truck.

Mining is the process of collecting raw materials from the Martian natural resources for further processing. The raw materials extracted from the martian surface are frozen water, minerals and ore. The thin atmosphere can be exploited for resources by atmospheric mining.

Technology

Mining is an energy consuming activity. Due to the hostile environment, the digging machines are expected to be automated, or be remote controlled. However, in-situ resources are almost always less expensive than resources imported from Earth.

Surface Mining Methods

Strip Mining

When resources are available close to the surface, a strip mine is the most efficient method of extraction. The layers of regolith covering the resource are taken away, and the exposed ore is mined. This method is also called open-pit mining, or regolith harvesting, depending on the depth of the work.

Subsurface Mining Methods

When the natural resource lies far underground, it is more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth[1] people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on Earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure. This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than seven kilometers. There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other.

Drift Mines

Drift mining consists of primarily horizontal tunnels. These are most often dug into a hillside.

Slope Mining

Slope mining uses diagonal tunnels to access ore.

Shaft Mining

Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining. The shaft is often provide with an elevator system and used to access extended horizontal galleries.

Room and Pillar Mining

In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the ceiling. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.

Longwall Mining

Longwall mining begins with a long horizontal shaft. The roof is held up mechanically by moveable supports. One side of the shaft is mined along its entire length. As this mine progresses, the mechanical supports move forward with the face. The old area of the mine is left unsupported, and allowed to collapse under its own weight, often leading to surface subsidence.

Secondary use for mining galleries

Before and after image of a tunnel settlement.

The artificial caves created by mining can be a valuable side effect of subsurface mining. They can be used to expand the settlement with storage rooms, living rooms, underground greenhouses, gas container for energy storage or for storage of chemicals.

See also

Reference

  1. McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527