Difference between revisions of "In-situ resource utilization"

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(Lithosphere (surface))
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Nitrates are sources of nitrogen for plants and industrial processes, ammonia and explosives.
 
Nitrates are sources of nitrogen for plants and industrial processes, ammonia and explosives.
  
==== Salts ====
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====Salts====
 
(Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, lithium, Chlorine.  Practically all minerals and elements can be found in the form of salts. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common salt, and is essential for life.
 
(Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, lithium, Chlorine.  Practically all minerals and elements can be found in the form of salts. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common salt, and is essential for life.
  
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==Processes==
 
==Processes==
Compression
 
  
Cooling
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=== Compression ===
 +
Mechanical compression of gases increases their density
  
Separation/crushing
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=== Thermal processes ===
 +
Heating and cooling are important processes that can be used to accomplish phase changes in various substances.
  
Flottation
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Crushing, milling
  
Distillation
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These are mechanical processes that break minerals down to individual crystals for separation and materials handling.  Complex minerals such as basalts, granites or ores can be broken down for separation
  
Electrolysis
+
=== Separation ===
 +
Mechanical, centrifugal, Flottation,Distillation
  
Chemical reactions (synthesis)
+
=== Electrolysis ===
 +
Deoxidation (usually, but not exclusively) of a compound into individual elements
 +
 
 +
=== Chemical reactions ===
 +
Synthesis, decomposition (electrolysis), single and double replacements.
  
 
==Utilization==
 
==Utilization==
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===Habitats===
 
===Habitats===
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Habitats, including living and production areas, are assembled from manufactured products or possible naturally occurring areas sur as lava tubes, to create living areas for the colonists, plants and animals.
  
 
===Food production===
 
===Food production===
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Propellant is one of the main ISRU products.  It is required to make transportation less prohibitively expensive.  
 
Propellant is one of the main ISRU products.  It is required to make transportation less prohibitively expensive.  
  
====Hydrocarbon Synthesis====
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====Hydrocarbon ====
  
 
:''Main article: [[Hydrocarbon synthesis]]''
 
:''Main article: [[Hydrocarbon synthesis]]''

Revision as of 09:55, 7 April 2019

In Situ resources Utilisation. R. Heidmann

The use of local resources is called in-situ resource utilization or ISRU. This concept is critical to the survival of an autonomous or semi-autonomous settlement.

Ressources

This section of the article is incomplete or needs more detail. You can help Marspedia by expanding or correcting it.


Atmosphere

Main article: Atmospheric processing

Many of the elements and molecules in the atmosphere can be utilized. Condensation, followed by distillation, are often used to extract resources. The atmosphere is first cooled to a liquid or solid state. This is distilled at precise temperatures in order to separate the elements and molecules.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

98% of martian atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is the main source of carbon, used for fuel production (CH4) and an essential element for life.

Nitrogen (N2)

1% of martian atmosphere

Nitrogen is used by plants and is part of a breathable atmosphere

Argon (Ar)

1% of martian atmosphere

Argon is an inert gas, useful in some industrial processes as an inert atmosphere and may be used as propellant in Electric Propulsion of spaceships.

Water (H2O)

Water is the main source of hydrogen, used for fuel production (CH4) and for the synthesis of hydrocarbons, the building blocks for life.

Lithosphere (surface)

Main article: Mining

Minerals in the crust of Mars must be mined and processed to be useful. The upper layer of Mars surface is called the Regolith. It is a mixtures of materials of various interest.

Water

Water can be gathered in a variety of ways. It is available in the form of water ice or as hydrated minerals.

Silicates

Silicates (SiO2) are useful for the production of glass and building materials. It is one of the main components of the martian planetary crust.

Iron ore

Iron ore ( Hematite:Fe2O3) or (Magnetite: Fe3O4) is a source of iron and steel, as well as oxygen or CO2, depending on the process used.

Alumina

Alumina (Al2O3) is the source of aluminium. Processing also produces CO2 or water depending on the process used.

Carbonates

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is used for concrete production. Carbonates are also a potential source of carbon for carbohydrates.

Carbonates are available on Mars.[1]

Sulfates

Nitrates

Nitrates are sources of nitrogen for plants and industrial processes, ammonia and explosives.

Salts

(Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, lithium, Chlorine. Practically all minerals and elements can be found in the form of salts. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most common salt, and is essential for life.

Chlorides are likely to be abundant on MArs.[2]

Energy

Energy is required to carry out ISRU. There are two known sources of energy on Mars, the sun and nuclear fission. Energy may be stored in a variety of ways for when the sources are not available.

Solar energy

Nuclear energy

Energy storage

Energy distribution

Processes

Compression

Mechanical compression of gases increases their density

Thermal processes

Heating and cooling are important processes that can be used to accomplish phase changes in various substances.

Crushing, milling

These are mechanical processes that break minerals down to individual crystals for separation and materials handling. Complex minerals such as basalts, granites or ores can be broken down for separation

Separation

Mechanical, centrifugal, Flottation,Distillation

Electrolysis

Deoxidation (usually, but not exclusively) of a compound into individual elements

Chemical reactions

Synthesis, decomposition (electrolysis), single and double replacements.

Utilization

This section of the article is incomplete or needs more detail. You can help Marspedia by expanding or correcting it.


Water

Water is essential for life. It is also a common process reagent, an excellent coolant for industrial processes and a source of hydrogen and oxygen using electrolysis.

On Mars it can also be used as a construction material or as radiation shielding.

Breathable Atmosphere

A breathable atmosphere is a basic requirement for life. It is also needed for heat transfer from people, plants and animals.

Habitats

Habitats, including living and production areas, are assembled from manufactured products or possible naturally occurring areas sur as lava tubes, to create living areas for the colonists, plants and animals.

Food production

Agriculture

Plants are natural factories, capable of utilizing the atmosphere and regolith to grow and reproduce.

Manufactured Products

Propellant

Propellant is one of the main ISRU products. It is required to make transportation less prohibitively expensive.

Hydrocarbon

Main article: Hydrocarbon synthesis

Hydrocarbons can be manufactured by combining hydrogen and carbon through a variety of reactions.

Silicone Synthesis

Main article: Silicone synthesis

See Also

References

  1. Wikipedia Carbonates on Mars[1]
  2. Wikipedia- Chlorides on Mars[2]