Low gravity

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There is no medical evidence for the effects on Mars' gravity on Earth life. Although we could simulate Mars' gravity on the International Space Station using a centrifuge, (with some mice in a cage for example), this experiment has never been done.

Mars' surface gravity is 3.711 meters / second^2, or about 38% of Earth's gravity.

Increasing Gravity inside Long Term Mars Habitations

There is a simple way to increase gravity within a major base on Mars... A centrifuge.

The formula for centripetal force is:

a = r(2 PI / T)^2. (a = acceleration, T = Time to rotate once, r = radius.)

So let's say we make an underground hyper loop railway on a circular track on an angle facing inwards (so when it is at speed, the gravity of the railcar plus Mars' gravity faces directly down to the floor of the car).

If this circular track was 500 meters in diameter, then the car would have to go around the loop every 57 seconds, (say one RPM to round off). The hyper loop railway would have to go 55 meters per second, or 198 km/hour.

The main reason to make it a hyper-loop is to avoid friction from the Martian dust. This speed is doable with Earth trains using today's tech, that have to fight thru Earth's air pressure. (Japan's bullet trains go 320 km/h for example.)

Assuming the train is 100% as long as the track, and that it is two meters wide, then there is 0.684 square kilometres of area for people to exercise or sleep in. If we make the train 3 stories high, then this area triples.

If we find that there are no long term ill effects at, say, 0.8 gees of gravity, the speed of the train could be lowered, or the radius could be increased (giving us more living area), without increasing the speed.

IF, and only if, we find that low gravity is a problem, then people could work 8 hours a day in the factories or farms, and live and sleep in an underground habit at Earth gravity.