Difference between revisions of "Propulsion"

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[[Category:Propulsion]]
 
[[Category:Propulsion]]
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The propulsive force is the force an engine produces to push a vehicle. This is factor of the available energy, the engine efficiency and the propulsive system ISP and ejection velocity.  The energy may come from a chemical reaction, a nuclear reaction or external sources (solar or kinetic).
  
==Theory==
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From Newton's third law of motion, the force exerted on a body by a second body is equal and inverse to the force exerted by the second body on the first body.  F<sub>1</sub>=-F<sub>2</sub>
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For a rocket, the first body is the exhaust, a "body" of gas,  and the second body is the rocket nozzle and by extension the entire rocket.  Since the force is directly proportional to the energy in the exhaust, then the energy added to the system must be equal to exactly twice the energy in the rocket exhaust, minus the system losses.  Half of the energy added to the engine will go the the exhaust as kinetic energy, and the other half will go to the vehicle as kinetic energy.
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==Equations==
  
 
===Propulsion equation===
 
===Propulsion equation===
This is the equation that links the electrical power, the propulsive force and the ISP.
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This is the equation that links the power, the propulsive force and the ISP.
  
P = F x ISP *9,81 / 2n or P= F x Ev /2n
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P = F x Isp x 9,81 / or P= F x V<sub>e</sub> /
  
 
where:
 
where:
  
P = power (Watts)
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P = Power (Watts)
  
 
F = Engine force (Newtons)
 
F = Engine force (Newtons)
  
ISP = Specific impulse (Seconds)
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Isp = Specific impulse (Seconds)
  
n = efficiency of engine, for an [[ion thruster]] this is between 0,2 and 0,8, for a [[Propellant|chemical rocket]], or [[Nuclear thermal propulsion|nuclear thermal rocket]], essentially 1.
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ɳ = efficiency of engine, for an [[ion thruster]] this is between 0,2 and 0,8, for a [[Propellant|chemical rocket]], or [[Nuclear thermal propulsion|nuclear thermal rocket]], essentially 1.
  
9,81 conversion factor
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9,81 conversion factor, Earth gravity (m/s<sup>2</sup>)
  
Ev = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
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V<sub>e</sub> = Exhaust Velocity (m/s)
  
 
===Specific impulse===
 
===Specific impulse===
ISP = Ev / 9,81
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Isp = V<sub>e</sub> / 9,81
  
ISP = Specific impulse (Seconds)
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Isp = Specific impulse (Seconds)
  
Ev = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
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V<sub>e</sub> = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
  
 
===Fuel consumption===
 
===Fuel consumption===
m = F/Ev
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= F/V<sub>e</sub>
  
m = Fuel consumption (kg/s)
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= Fuel consumption (kg/s)
  
 
F = Force (Newtons)
 
F = Force (Newtons)
  
Ev = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
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V<sub>e</sub> = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
  
 
===Velocity (Rocket equation)===
 
===Velocity (Rocket equation)===
V = Ev x ln(M<sub>o</sub>/M<sub>f</sub>)
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V<sub>f</sub> = V<sub>o</sub> + V<sub>e</sub> x ln(M<sub>o</sub>/M<sub>f</sub>)
  
Ev = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
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V<sub>e</sub> = Exhaust velocity (m/s)
  
V = ship final velocity (m/s)
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V<sub>f</sub> = ship final velocity (m/s)
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V<sub>o</sub> = Initial velocity (m/s)
  
 
ln = natural logarithm
 
ln = natural logarithm
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M<sub>f</sub> = Final mass of the ship (kg)
 
M<sub>f</sub> = Final mass of the ship (kg)
 
The propulsive force is the force the engines produce to push the ship. This is factor of the available electrical energy, the engine efficiency and the propulsive system ISP and ejection velocity.
 

Latest revision as of 05:32, 27 August 2021

The propulsive force is the force an engine produces to push a vehicle. This is factor of the available energy, the engine efficiency and the propulsive system ISP and ejection velocity. The energy may come from a chemical reaction, a nuclear reaction or external sources (solar or kinetic).

From Newton's third law of motion, the force exerted on a body by a second body is equal and inverse to the force exerted by the second body on the first body. F1=-F2

For a rocket, the first body is the exhaust, a "body" of gas, and the second body is the rocket nozzle and by extension the entire rocket. Since the force is directly proportional to the energy in the exhaust, then the energy added to the system must be equal to exactly twice the energy in the rocket exhaust, minus the system losses. Half of the energy added to the engine will go the the exhaust as kinetic energy, and the other half will go to the vehicle as kinetic energy.

Equations

Propulsion equation

This is the equation that links the power, the propulsive force and the ISP.

P = F x Isp x 9,81 / 2ɳ or P= F x Ve /2ɳ

where:

P = Power (Watts)

F = Engine force (Newtons)

Isp = Specific impulse (Seconds)

ɳ = efficiency of engine, for an ion thruster this is between 0,2 and 0,8, for a chemical rocket, or nuclear thermal rocket, essentially 1.

9,81 conversion factor, Earth gravity (m/s2)

Ve = Exhaust Velocity (m/s)

Specific impulse

Isp = Ve / 9,81

Isp = Specific impulse (Seconds)

Ve = Exhaust velocity (m/s)

Fuel consumption

ṁ = F/Ve

ṁ = Fuel consumption (kg/s)

F = Force (Newtons)

Ve = Exhaust velocity (m/s)

Velocity (Rocket equation)

Vf = Vo + Ve x ln(Mo/Mf)

Ve = Exhaust velocity (m/s)

Vf = ship final velocity (m/s)

Vo = Initial velocity (m/s)

ln = natural logarithm

Mo = Initial mass of the ship (kg)

Mf = Final mass of the ship (kg)