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The Temperature inside a future settlement on Mars must be much higher than the natural Martian surface temperature. This requires a great amount of energy for heating, or efficient insulation.

Underground settlements will need to be insulated as well. In particular in regolith containing water, overheating might destabilize the regolith around the habitat, like the similar problems with permafrost in northern climates on Earth.

Living quarters

Humans are generally comfortable between 20 and 25C. Circulations areas may be keep cooler of hotter than residential areas, for variety and due to different thermal loading. General ventilation may be used to remove heat gain from well insulated habitats, or to add energy to habitats without insulation.


Greenhouses are generally kept between 22 and 28°C. Relative humidity will be maintained from 40 to 60%. Plants generate large amounts of humidity through evapo-transpiration. This humidity needs to be removed from the air and returned to the plants as water in their soil or substrate, possible after treatment. Humidity control is essential for plant health, to prevent mildew and infections.

Industrial complexes

Industrial areas are maintained at the same temperatures a living quarters. High temperature areas such as glass and iron foundries and smelters may be fed cold air at temperatures between 5°C and 10°C but will be heated by the process. Radiant heat may require spot cooling.