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Ti 22

Abundance: 0,63%

Titanium, periodic table Ti, is a metal. It has 22 protons, and its most common isotope has 26 neutrons, for an atomic mass of 48.

Titanium[1] is a light, strong, refractory metal. It is fairly common in the Earth's crust, and probably on Mars as well. It is usually available as an oxide, TiO2, naturally combined with other elements to form complex minerals. Titanium oxide is a very opaque white pigment. 95% of titanium is used in pigment production.

Titanium has many valance states, and thus (at various temperatures), it can chemically combine with many other elements in a wide variety of compounds.

In situ production

Titanium is well distributed in the crust and is present in low concentrations in many minerals. Concentrated minerals may be rare on Mars, further geological exploration is required. Importation from Earth may be a practical solution for the earlier stages of a settlement. Titanium is difficult to produce as it is not readily reduced by carbon, as Iron can be, for example. Rather than forming Ti and CO2 it produces Titanium carbide (TiC), and oxygen.

Titanium can be produced as a powder, and may then be used in additive manufacturing, sidestepping some of the manufacturing difficulties of the metal.


Titanium nitrile and titanium carbide are both extremely hard compounds that can be used to coat tools.

Titanium is used in aerospace. It can only be welded under an inert atmosphere, at titanium at high temperature will react with oxygen and nitrogen.

The largest cast titanium parts ever made were the grid fins on the Falcon 9 boosters. The light metal reduced the mass of the booster, and the high temperature resistance allows the fins to slow and control the booster as it flies to its recovery point.

The main use of titanium is as an oxide, TiO2, an opaque white pigment.