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Mining is the process of fetching natural raw material from below the Martian surface for further processing. The fetched raw materials are frozen water, minerals and ore.

Connie: Your absolutely right, that's Brad Dourif. He peayld Gredma Wormtongue in The Two Towers, and Saavedro in Myst III.-Trekluver: It's good that it answered all your questions, that's what the books were released for. I haven't read BotA, or BotT recently, but I remember that they were really great books. And that's coming from somebody who has had every author I ever start reading eventually ending up on a best authors list. It was funny, I just picked these authors, loved them, and 5 of them end up on a best fantasy authors of all time list( don't remember by who). Robert Jordan, Stephen Donaldson, Tolken, Marion Zimmer Bradley, and.. (hmm, I can't remeber the other name).If you like the kind of epic tales in the Myst books, or if you like Fantasy in general, Those authors are a MUST read. Would also reccomend Jim Butcher, Brandon Sanderson, Orson Scott Card, and Simon Green.I read a lot of books (typically at least two a month) and I can tell you that these authors are extremely talented./end rant

> but then the Moon is airless and that would limit ruanawy replicators.Lack of air means that it couldn't spread by air. True. Good point. But what do you think about the likelihood of a replicator (reproducer): 1) leaving the Earth, 2) surviving transit to the Moon vs Mars, 3) burning up in the martian atmosphere vs burning by a hard impact on the Moon 4) surviving long enough to get into a habitatOK, I feel like I'm speculating well beyond my pay grade here but here goes 1) Leaving Earth If the replicator was a chemical then I could imagine one of them being blown to a high altitude and then being blown into space by frequent, high-altitude meteor strikes. If it was a nanodevice even at the massive weight of a dust particle, I still think that it could be blown to a high altitude. So I'm guessing that it wouldn't take too long before either would leave the Earth.2) Surviving Transit Mars is a lot further away and so solar radiation would have a much longer time to sterilize the replicator. I'm guessing that a single strike by a solar proton would destroy either a chemical or a nanodevice. Furthermore, the orbit of the replicator could only? be changed by the solar wind but the solar wind would destroy the replicator, yes? Certain bacteria survive in space but I think that the reason for this is that one solar proton doesn't necessarily kill the bacteria and bacteria has repair mechanisms which, presumably, a chemical or nanodevice wouldn't have. If the replicator were in a piece of rock blown up by an asteroid then it could well survive in space. But, I'm guessing that rocks being blown off Earth to escape velocity happens maybe once every 100? years (e.g. Tunguska-level ground strike). So, it seems to me that transit survival is hard to achieve. But, if possible 3) Atmospheric vs Ground Impact Impacting the lunar surface would deliver the energy over a shorter period of time than through the atmosphere. Again, it seems as though free-floating replicators (whether chemical or nanodevice) would reliably be destroyed either way. Again, only a replicator in an ejected piece of Earth would survive either.4) Surviving Long Enough to Get Into a Habitat This is particularly interesting. IF we establish a self-sustaining off-Earth colony before replicators are created then we have the protections of 1), 2), and 3). But if we were to only have an underground Earth bunker then leaving the Earth without carrying contamination would, in my opinion, be almost impossible.If we already had a self-sustaining off-Earth colony when replicators were created on Earth, then I would imaging that it would be at least years (maybe decades, centuries, or never) before the replicator made its way to the Moon or Mars. If it were to survive after reentry (Mars) or impact (Moon) then I think it would be iffy but possible that it could replicate on Mars and could easily spread by the wind. But I think that it would go nowhere on the Moon.My Conclusion Prudence dictates that we establish an off-Earth colony, really, ASAP. I still believe that a self-sustaining colony can be more quickly established on the Moon than Mars. It seems to me that most people agree that a lunar base can be established quicker, safer, more cheaply (even taking aerobraking into account). I would go a second step and say that the relative resource deficiency of the Moon vs Mars (e.g. carbon & nitrogen, volatiles only at the poles) can be overcome faster than a martian effort. Just my current understanding.

Subsurface Mining Methods

When the natural resource lies far underground, it is far more efficient to dig tunnels to access the ore than to remove the overlaying rock and regolith. Since Mars has only about 38% as much gravity as Earth[1] people should be able to extend mines to a depth about 2.6 times as deep as on earth without the tunnel collapsing from hydrostatic pressure. This should allow the search for valuable minerals to a depth of more than 5 miles. There are many subsurface mining methods, and they are often used in conjunction with each other. I think it's a good thing to keep busy as long as you aren't too busy for family and grief. I breuid myself in my work after my son died 25 years ago at age 16. I kept so busy that I did not face my grief did not deal with it. I did not allow myself to cry or mourn. Then 5 years ago my husband was stabbed by a poacher on our property after dark and left for dead. They called in a helicopter (due to how far we life out in the boonies) for my husband, just as they had for my son. When that helicopter took off and I was alone in the dark my son's death came slamming back into me full-force. Due to miracle after miracle, my husband survived. But It's taken me these last 5 years to deal with my delayed grief. Trust me there isn't anyone around anymore who understands your grief 25 years late. Just do not put off your mourning, but keep busy. Janet Macy

Slope Mining

Slope mining uses diagonal tunnels to access ore.

Shaft Mining

Vertical shafts are used in shaft mining.

Room and Pillar Mining

In this method, large galleries are dug into the ore. Pillars of ore are left at regular intervals to support the celing. After all the ore has been removed, these pillars may be removed through retreat mining, leading to the collapse of the chamber. This collapse may lead to surface subsidence.

Are you available for any of the flowloing days in July?July 5th, 6th, 7th, 8thJuly 20th, 21st, 22ndJuly 25th, 26thpossibly July 27th and 28thI move to Shanghai on the 30th, and am looking to get a head start before my job at the Shanghai American School begins. Thanks!


  1. McGRAW-HILL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF Science & Technology, 8 th edition, vol. 10 (c) 1997 page 527