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Astronautics is the science of spaceflight. It covers the fields of space travel and space exploration. It is divided into a number of subfields covering various aspects of spaceflight.

Aeronautics differs from astronautics in that it is the science of atmospheric flight. Aeronautics on Mars can be viewed either as a subset of Spaceflight or as an extension of Earth aeronautics.


Spacecraft trajectories, ballistics and celestial mechanics.

Escape velocity

Orbital mechanics, Hohmann transfer orbits, fast transfer and flyby orbits,

Aerobraking, aerocapture

Spacecraft Propulsion


Propellant, Fuel and Oxidizers

Propulsion systems

Secondary propulsion

Spacecraft Design


Power systems, RTGs, fuel cells, Batteries, Photovoltaic panels

Thermal design, Insulation, radiative cooling


Launch and landing infrastructures

Spacecraft Controls

Attitude controls

Star trackers

Telemetry, command and tracking

Space Environment

Solar wind

Radiation in space

Martian surface radiation environment

Dust and micrometeorites


Aeronautics on Mars