Origin and Growth
Initial biomass must be imported from Earth, and is limited to the interior of settlements. Once a self-sustaining ecosystem is established within a settlement, the net biomass can increase naturally through the utilization of Martian resources. Biomass contains inherent energy, which distinguishes it from mineral matter. Growing the amount of biomass consumes energy, e.g. through photosynthesis.
- Main article: waste biomass recycling
All living organisms generate waste products, and eventually their dead remains. This waste must be recycled back into the ecosystem so that no resources are wasted. Even human remains, following a funeral should be recycled.