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Deuterium is present in martian water at a concentration of about 1000 parts per million (0,1%). On Earth, the average concentration is 0,0156%, or one atom in 6420.

The cosmic abundance of deuterium is about 17% of the concentration on Earth, or 0,00265%. This is close to the concentration in Jupiter's atmosphere.

Deuterium is a potential fuel for nuclear fusion. Possible reactions include: Deuterium+deuterium, deuterium+tritium and deuterium+helium 3.

The deuterium is contained in water as heavy water, usually with a D-O-H arrangement (semi heavy water), rather than the common H-O-H water molecule. With enrichment, the ratio of D-O-D to D-O-H steadily goes up. There are a number of separation methods available, all of them requiring large amounts of energy. The most effective commercial process is the Girdler Sulfide process. The higher abundance of deuterium in Martian water would make is easier to separate, using less energy. This might make deuterium a potential export product from Mars if fusion is ever developed as an energy source.