Pioneer plants (also called pioneer species) can play an important role in colonization of Mars. Although the plants can not live and grow unter the Martian environmental conditions, they can help establish biological types of greenhouses, where they are able to transform regolith to soil. Among others the following species may be used:
These plants are unassuming with respect to nutrients. They are adapted to ground conditions with low microbial activity. For the concept of an unmanned setup of a whole settlement the pioneer plants will probably be the first life-form on Mars.