Pioneer plants (also called pioneer species) can play an important role in colonization of Mars. They are able to transform regolith to soil. Among others the following species may be used:
These plants are unassuming with respect to nutrients. They are adapted to ground conditions with low microbial activity. For the concept of an unmanned setup of a whole settlement the pioneer plants will probably be the first life-form on Mars.
- What sorts of pioneer plants can be combined in a small artificial biosphere? This should include a mixed insect population.
- An experimental setup should be performed to find out, what species are best for soil production.