The underground geology of Mars needs to be explored. Sources of water, usable stone and concentrated mineral resources must be identified. Soil quality must be defined to create suitable foundations for settlement habitats.
The actual geometry of the Martian caves is unknown. Only the size of the entrance can be seen on photographs. If the caves are involved in settlement planning we need to know whether they are really usable or not. The exploration can be done by remote controlled machines, e.g. specialized rovers with agents crawling into the caves.
- size and shape of subsurface caves
- geological stability
- internal temperature
- deposits of water and minerals
We need more information about the atmospheric movements on Mars. The viability of wind turbines strongly depend on it. Several wind sensors could be brought to the Martian surface, each in a different region. With the additional knowledge we can optimize the construction of wind turbines.
- strength and duration of wind
- global wind patterns
- peak wind speed
- average wind speed in a Martian year for several regions
Signs of liquid water feed the hope of finding underground warm spots near the surface in some regions. A specialized rover can be sent to Mars to drill holes, measure temperature and determine geothermal potential. The present InSight_Mission has shown that drilling deeply into the Martian surface will be a significant challenge.
- location of warm spots
- temperature at a depth of 10m, 50m and 100m in several areas.