Lighting is vital for a colony. A colony might have a limited number of windows, so lighting would be required permanantly. Plants in greenhouses might need to be lit artificially to supplement natural light. Rovers must have headlamps for driving at night or during dust storms.
Types of lighting
Most lightbulbs on Earth are incandescent. Fire and stars produce light via incandescence. In an incandescent light-bulb a metal filament (Usually tungsten, the only metal that can withstand the temperatures) is heated to around 3000C. A glass bulb is fitted around the filament and the air evacuated or replaced by an inert gas, because the filament would otherwise oxidize and burn. In most commercial installation incandescent light bulbs have been replaced by fluorescents, that are themselves being replaced by LEDs.
Human response to light
Humans have two types of vision, color and low-light. Once the vision has adjusted to low light, the average human is able to function well in the light of the full moon, but without the ability to see in color.
Certain lights, emulating natural sunlight, are used to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder.
Many plants require more sunlight than is available on the martian surface. Dust storms can also obscure the sun for months at a time. Artificial lighting is needed to at least augment the natural light.
Interior grow rooms use artificial light for plant production. This technology was developed for the production of Cannabis in closed environments but is applicable to all indoor grown plants. The most common power used for these installations is 300-600 W/m2, or about one quarter to one half the power of full sunlight.
|Sunlight||10000||107 527||1300 (120)|
|Full daylight||1000||10 752||130 (12)|
|Overcast day||100||1 075||13-18 (1,3-1,8)|
|Very dark day||10||107|
The table below provides recommended light levels from the IESNA Lighting Handbook and LPD levels from the IECC 2015
|ROOM TYPE||LIGHT LEVEL (FOOT CANDLES)||LIGHT LEVEL (LUX)||IECC 2015 LIGHTING POWER DENSITY
Watts/m2 (WATTS PER SF)
|Bedroom - Dormitory||20-30 FC||200-300 lux||(0.38)|
|Cafeteria - Eating||20-30 FC||200-300 lux||(0.65)|
|Classroom - General||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||(1.24)|
|Conference Room||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||1.23|
|Corridor||5-10 FC||50-100 lux||0.66|
|Exhibit Space||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||1.45|
|Gymnasium - Exercise / Workout||20-30 FC||200-300 lux||0.72|
|Gymnasium - Sports / Games||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||1.20|
|Kitchen / Food Prep||30-75 FC||300-750 lux||1.21|
|Laboratory (Classroom)||50-75 FC||500-750 lux||1.43|
|Laboratory (Professional)||75-120 FC||750-1200 lux||1.81|
|Library - Stacks||20-50 FC||200-500 lux||1.71|
|Library - Reading / Studying||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||1.06|
|Loading Dock||10-30 FC||100-300 lux||0.47|
|Lobby - Office/General||20-30 FC||200-300 lux||0.90|
|Locker Room||10-30 FC||100-300 lux||0.75|
|Lounge / Breakroom||10-30 FC||100-300 lux||0.73|
|Mechanical / Electrical Room||20-50 FC||200-500 lux||0.95|
|Office - Open||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||0.98|
|Office - Private / Closed||30-50 FC||300-500 lux||1.11|
|Parking - Interior||5-10 FC||50-100 lux||0.19|
|Restroom / Toilet||10-30 FC||100-300 lux||0.98|
|Retail Sales||20-50 FC||200-500 lux||1.59|
|Stairway||5-10 FC||50-100 lux||0.69|
|Storage Room - General||5-20 FC||50-200 lux||0.63|
|Workshop||30-75 FC||300-750 lux||1.59|
- How much exposure time is needed for the skin to produce enough vitamin D?