Difference between revisions of "Radiation"
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===Limits for plants===
===Limits for plants===
Revision as of 10:07, 15 March 2020
Natural Radiation on Mars is much higher compared with Earth. The thin atmosphere provides only a small shielding effect against harmful solar radiation and cosmic radiation. Mars also lacks the magnetosphere that protects Earth.
The average natural radiation level on Mars is 24-30 rads or 240-300 mSv per year(needs checking and reference). This is about 40-50 times the average on Earth.
Occasional solar flares produce particularly high doses. Some Solar Proton Events (SPEs) were observed by MARIE that were not seen by sensors near Earth due to the fact that SPEs are directional. Astronauts on Mars could be warned of SPEs by sensors closer to the Sun and presumably take shelter during these events. This would imply an Early Warning System (possibly a network of sensors in orbit around the sun or a single sensor in Lagrangian point L1) might be needed to ensure all SPEs threatening Mars were detected early enough.
1 millisievert [mSv] = 0.1 rad [rd]
- 1 Types of Radiation
- 2 Exposure limits
- 3 Martian Environment
- 4 Effect on material
- 5 Protection
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Types of Radiation
Radiation comes in a variety of forms:
|X-Rays and Gamma Rays||1||Radiation belts, solar radiation, and bremsstrahlung electrons|
|Cosmic radiation, inner-radiation belts, and solar radiation|
0.05 ev (thermal)
|Nuclear interactions in the sun; on Mars, produced when cosmic radiation interacts with regolith|
|Heavy Ions||Varies widely||Cosmic radiation|
(RBE is a measure of the damage done to living tissue, relative to gamma rays)
Cosmic radiation comprises 85% protons, 14% alpha particles, and 1% heavy ions. Solar radiation includes the same radiation types, but it a higher proportion of protons and its heavy primaries have lower energy levels. The high-energy heavy primaries in cosmic radiation can penetrate materials that effectively block lower-energy radiation.
Limits for humans
Exposure to dangerous levels of radiation causes radiation sickness and cancer. Any exposure to radiation, no matter how slight, poses some risk. Small dose - small risk of cancer. High dose - high risk of cancer. The average exposure to radiation on Earth due to natural sources is 6.2 mSv per year
Nevertheless, there are defined legal limits for exposure during work for several professional activities, such as for X-ray assistants, airplane personnel, etc. The International Commission on Radiation Protection recommends that occupational (work-related) radiation exposure be limited to 50 millisieverts (mSv) per year, and limited to 100 mSv over any 5-year period. NASA's radiation dose limits for astronauts are established in NASA-STD-3001.
There is scientific uncertainty surrounding the health hazard from cosmic and solar radiation, because most past research on the health effects of radiation studied only x-rays and gamma rays.
Limits for plants
"In general, plants are relatively radiation resistant when growing and extremely resistant as dormant seeds." Radiation would not interfere with raising plants as food sources, at least not on the time scales of exploration missions.
Effects of the Martian atmosphere
Most SPE particles will be stopped by the atmosphere before they reach the surface. However, interactions with atmospheric particles can produce neutrons; those neutrons can reach the surface, so the health hazard is not eliminated.
Cosmic radiation protons are likely to penetrate the atmosphere. Cosmic ray heavy ions may fragment in the atmosphere, producing lower-mass ions that can still harm astronauts on the surface.
Mars' thin atmosphere allows more ultraviolet light to reach the surface, compared to Earth. However, habitat structural materials and standard space suits should be sufficient to protect humans from UV radiation.
Effects of regolith
When cosmic radiation strikes regolith, it can cause the impacted atoms to emit their own radiation. Surrounding regolith particles absorb much of this radiation, with the exception of neutrons.
Neutrons generated in this way are called albedo neutrons. These neutrons have the potential to add substantially to the radiation dose for astronauts on the surface.
Dose received by an unprotected human on Mars
The equivalent dose rate from cosmic radiation on Earth's surface at sea level is 0.26 mSv per year. Based on measurements made by the Curiosity rover, the corresponding figure for the surface of Mars is approximately 230 mSv/year. More generally, one model estimated that the dose equivalent rate on the surface of Mars ranges from 156.4 mSv/year (at solar maximum) to 273.8 mSv/year (at solar minimum). A 2005 report by the Mars Human Precursor Science Steering Group estimated that (at solar minimum) the dose from cosmic radiation would be 1.2 +/- 0.5 mSv/day; this includes 0.4 +/- 0.4 mSv/day from albedo neutrons.
Solar Proton Events
Curiosity also measured the temporary increase in radiation during a single SPE. The results indicate an increase in equivalent dose rate of approximately 25% over a 1-day interval. This figure will vary depending on the intensity of a particular SPE.
Effect on material
Radiation can change the properties of plastics and metals, making them brittle after a period of time.
Habitats should be equipped with a radiation shielding, thick enough to reduce the radiation to a level equal to Earth, that is, almost zero. Best protection may be achieved with houses built in natural caves or set into cliffs or hillsides.
Space suits must be designed with radiation in mind. The suit should provide adequate shielding for the occupant. It may be necessary to design suits with several grades of protection. Suits designed for short-term use can carry lighter shielding which would reduce weight and improve maneuverability.
"In this work, it is shown that on the Martian surface, almost any amount of aluminum shielding increases exposure levels for humans. The increased exposure levels are attributed to neutron production in the shield and Martian regolith as well as the electromagnetic cascade induced in the Martian atmosphere. This result is significant for optimization of vehicle and shield designs intended for the surface of Mars." 
"An in-situ shielding strategy will also be of little help unless several hundred g/cm2 of regolith is utilized. Such a strategy would probably require large scale excavation making it an unlikely candidate. Instead, the shielding strategy would rely primarily on material optimization. Options, such as replacing aluminum structures with high hydrogen content carbon composites, could be pursued."  This opinion is open to argument as in-situ resources utilization for any type of settlement should make large amounts of regolith available for construction. It mainly is true for the very first level of habitats.
The use of g/cm2 can be translated into an equivalent thickness that depends on the material density. For martian regolith at 2000 kg/m3, a thickness of 1m of regolith is 200 g/cm2. Water (or ice) is 100 g/cm2. So the minimum covering for a long term settlement would be 5m or more. For water, although the radiation absorption is better the density is lower, so about the same thickness would be required for protection (to be discussed)
- Schimmerling W. (2011, Feb 5). The Space Radiation Environment: An Introduction. https://three.jsc.nasa.gov/concepts/SpaceRadiationEnviron.pdf
- Rapp D. (2006). Radiation Effects and Shielding Requirements in Human Missions to the Moon and Mars. Mars 2:46-71. https://doi.org/10.1555/mars.2006.0004
- NASA. (2015). NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Volume 1, Revision A: Crew Health. Retrieved from https://standards.nasa.gov/standard/nasa/nasa-std-3001-vol-1
- National Research Council 1996. Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues and Research Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/5540.
- Beaty DW, Snook K, Carlton A, Eppler D, Farrell B, Heldmann J,...Zeitlin C, on behalf of the Mars Human Precursor Science Steering Group. (2005). An Analysis of the Precursor Measurements of Mars Needed to Reduce the Risk of the First Human Mission to Mars. Available at https://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/reports/MHP_SSG_(06-02-05).pdf
- Hassler DM, Zeitlin C, Wimmer-Schweingruber RF, Ehresmann B, Rafkin S, Eigenbrode JL,...MSL Science Team. (2014). Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover. Science 343(6169). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244797
- NASA, Tony C. Slaba, Christopher J. Mertens, and Steve R. Blattnig Radiation Shielding Optimization on Mars , https://spaceradiation.larc.nasa.gov/nasapapers/NASA-TP-2013-217983.pdf, Apr 2013.
- McKenna-Lawlor S, Goncalves P, Keating A, Reitz G, Matthia D. (2012). Overview of Energetic Particle Hazards During Prospective Manned Missions to Mars. Planetary and Space Science. 63: 123-132.